Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 45

December 3, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 45

Pages 6469–6632

  1. Cover Picture

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    7. Reviews
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    10. Communications
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      Graphene Nanoribbons: Dense Arrays of Highly Aligned Graphene Nanoribbons Produced by Substrate-Controlled Metal-Assisted Etching of Graphene (Adv. Mater. 45/2013) (page 6469)

      Pablo Solís-Fernández, Kazuma Yoshida, Yui Ogawa, Masaharu Tsuji and Hiroki Ago

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370281

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      Fabrication of graphene nanoribbon arrays by substrate-controlled cutting of graphene during metal-assisted etching is demonstrated by Hiroki Ago and co-workers on page 6562. The proposed method allows for large-area production of highly dense arrays of aligned nanoribbons from a single graphene film. This is expected to facilitate the large-scale integration of graphene nanoribbons into electronic device applications. The image conceptually illustrates the cutting process of the graphene by the metal nanoparticles.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
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      Micro-robots: Development of a Sperm-Flagella Driven Micro-Bio-Robot (Adv. Mater. 45/2013) (page 6470)

      Veronika Magdanz, Samuel Sanchez and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370282

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      A fascinating approach to the development of a hybrid micro-bio-robot is presented by Samuel Sanchez, Oliver G. Schmidt and Veronika Magdanz on page 6581. Rolled-up microtubes are used to capture single sperm cells and remotely control them to a desired location. These microbio-robots are useful for the controlled guidance of sperm cells, which is a promising feature towards the development of new assisted-fertilization techniques.

  3. Back Cover

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      Photocatalysis: An Exceptional Artificial Photocatalyst, Nih-CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Hybrid, Made In Situ from CdSe Quantum Dots and Nickel Salts for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution (Adv. Mater. 45/2013) (page 6634)

      Zhi-Jun Li, Jiu-Ju Wang, Xu-Bing Li, Xiang-Bing Fan, Qing-Yuan Meng, Ke Feng, Bin Chen, Chen-Ho Tung and Li-Zhu Wu

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370283

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      Photosynthesis provides a paradigm for the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy in the form of hydrogen (H2), where hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to H2 with remarkable activity. A simple and exceptional artificial photocatalyst, Nih-CdSe/CdS core/shell hybrid, made in situ from CdSe quantum dots and nickel salts under mild condition is described on page 6613 by Li-Zhu Wu and co-workers. The synthetic strategy is general and the artificial photocatalyst holds promise for light capture, electron transfer, and catalysis at its surface in water, leading to a self-healing system for H2 evolution in harmony.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 45/2013)

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370284

  5. Contents

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  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: What Can Be Done with the Langmuir-Blodgett Method? Recent Developments and its Critical Role in Materials Science (pages 6477–6512)

      Katsuhiko Ariga, Yusuke Yamauchi, Taizo Mori and Jonathan P. Hill

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302283

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      Has the LB technique been superseded by LbL assembly? Is the LB procedure merely an anachronistic obsolete technique? Is LB not required if we have LbL? The simple answer to these questions is NO! In this review we re-evaluate the true value of the LB technique by summarizing recent research examples where the LB technique has been indispensable.

  7. Communications

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    1. Carbon Nanohorns as Integrative Materials for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 6513–6518)

      Rubén D. Costa, Sebastian Feihl, Axel Kahnt, Sanjeev Gambhir, David L. Officer, Gordon G. Wallace, María Isabel Lucio, María Antonia Herrero, Ester Vázquez, Zois Syrgiannis, Maurizio Prato and Dirk M. Guldi

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301527

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      Different nanocarbons, that is, single-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), and their respective oxidized analogs have been used to fabricate novel doped TiO2 electrodes for DSSCs. Our results indicate that all of the nanocarbons significantly enhance the device characteristics when compared to standard TiO2 electrodes. Overall, our most outstanding finding is that SWCNH derivatives are also a plausible material for developing highly-efficient DSSCs.

    2. The Role of Additive in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Small Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 6519–6525)

      Hongyu Wang, Feng Liu, Laju Bu, Jun Gao, Cheng Wang, Wei Wei and Thomas P. Russell

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302848

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      A new diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecule for solution-processed OPVs is synthesized. The chemical additive has a profound effect in refining the morphology and, thus, significantly increases the efficiencies of the devices. The role of the additive is characterized by various techniques and the additive-driven structure–property relationship is established, which reveals that the additive affects the crystallization, PCBM aggregation, and phase separation.

    3. “Liquid-Liquid-Solid”-Type Superoleophobic Surfaces to Pattern Polymeric Semiconductors towards High-Quality Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 6526–6533)

      Yuchen Wu, Bin Su, Lei Jiang and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302204

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      Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by “liquid-liquid-solid” type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm2·V−1·s−1 and current on/off ratio of more than 106. All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics.

    4. Work Function Tuning for High-Performance Solution-Processed Organic Photodetectors with Inverted Structure (pages 6534–6538)

      Emeline Saracco, Benjamin Bouthinon, Jean-Marie Verilhac, Caroline Celle, Nicolas Chevalier, Denis Mariolle, Olivier Dhez and Jean-Pierre Simonato

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302338

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      Organic photodetectors with inverted structure are fabricated by solution process techniques. A very thin interfacing layer of polyethyleneimine leads to a homogenous interface with low work function. The devices exhibit excellent performances, in particular in terms of low dark current density, wide range linearity, high detectivity, and remarkable stability in ambient air without encapsulation.

    5. Direct Observation of Quantum-Confined Graphene-Like States and Novel Hybrid States in Graphene Oxide by Transient Spectroscopy (pages 6539–6545)

      Lei Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Yan Wang, Shou-Jun Zhu, Yong-Lai Zhang, Jun-Hu Zhang, Qi-Dai Chen, Wei Han, Huai-Liang Xu, Bai Yang and Hong-Bo Sun

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302927

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      Quantum-confined graphene-like electronic states are directly observed in graphene oxide and photothermally reduced graphene oxide via transient spectroscopy. An unexpected novel hybrid state arising from amorphous carbon-like peripheral structure with high sp3/sp2 carbon ratio in close vicinity of confined graphene-like states is found commonly existent in various carbon nanomaterials, including graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, and carbon dots.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Batteries: Encapsulated Monoclinic Sulfur for Stable Cycling of Li–S Rechargeable Batteries (Adv. Mater. 45/2013) (page 6546)

      San Moon, Young Hwa Jung, Wook Ki Jung, Dae Soo Jung, Jang Wook Choi and Do Kyung Kim

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370286

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      On page 6547 Do Kyung Kim, Jang Wook Choi and co-workers describe a highly aligned and carbon-encapsulated sulfur cathode synthesized with an AAO template that exhibits a high and long cycle life, and the best rate capability based on the complete encapsulation of sulfur (physical) and implementation of the monoclinic sulfur phase (chemical).

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Encapsulated Monoclinic Sulfur for Stable Cycling of Li–S Rechargeable Batteries (pages 6547–6553)

      San Moon, Young Hwa Jung, Wook Ki Jung, Dae Soo Jung, Jang Wook Choi and Do Kyung Kim

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303166

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      Monoclinic S8, an uncommon allotrope of sulfur at room temperature, can be formed when common orthorhombic S8 is heat-treated under enclosed environments in nanometer dimensions. Monoclinic S8 prevents the formation of soluble polysulfides during battery operation, resulting in unprecedented cycling performance over 1000 cycles under the highest sulfur content to date.

    2. Photo–Roll Lithography (PRL) for Continuous and Scalable Patterning with Application in Flexible Electronics (pages 6554–6561)

      Jong G. Ok, Moon Kyu Kwak, Chad M. Huard, Hong Seok Youn and L. Jay Guo

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303514

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      A novel nanofabrication methodology for continuous, scalable, and geometry-tunable lithography is developed, named photo–roll lithography (PRL), by integrating photolithography with rollable processing. As a flexible mask attached to a quartz cylinder containing a UV source rolls over a photoresistcoated substrate, PRL realizes continuous photolithographic fabrication of various micro/nanoscale patterns with geometry that is tunable by controlling mask–substrate motions.

    3. Dense Arrays of Highly Aligned Graphene Nanoribbons Produced by Substrate-Controlled Metal-Assisted Etching of Graphene (pages 6562–6568)

      Pablo Solís-Fernández, Kazuma Yoshida, Yui Ogawa, Masaharu Tsuji and Hiroki Ago

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302619

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      Dense arrays of aligned graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are fabricated by substrate-controlled etching of large-area single-layer graphene. An adequate choice of etching substrate and catalyst deposition method allows densities up to 25 nanoribbons μm–1 to be obtained with average widths of 19 nm. The efficacy of the method is evidenced by the high on/off ratios of back-gated transistors made with these GNRs, which can go up to 5000.

    4. Carbon Nanodots Featuring Efficient FRET for Real-Time Monitoring of Drug Delivery and Two-Photon Imaging (pages 6569–6574)

      Jing Tang, Biao Kong, Hao Wu, Ming Xu, Yongcheng Wang, Yanli Wang, Dongyuan Zhao and Gengfeng Zheng

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303124

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      A FRET-based carbon nanodot (CDot) drug delivery platform has been developed. These CDots offer excellent biocompatibility, stable fluorescence, and efficient FRET between CDots and the attached fluorescent drug molecules, such as doxorubicin, enabling enhanced drug delivery, convenient cell imaging, and real-time monitoring of drug release. Moreover, the FRET-based two-photon imaging and drug tracking in deep tissues are also demonstrated.

    5. Organic Electrochemical Transistor Array for Recording Transepithelial Ion Transport of Human Airway Epithelial Cells (pages 6575–6580)

      Chunlei Yao, Changyan Xie, Peng Lin, Feng Yan, Pingbo Huang and I-Ming Hsing

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302615

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      An organic electrochemical transistor array is integrated with human airway epithelial cells. This integration provides a novel method to couple transepithelial ion transport with electrical current. Activation and inhibition of transepithelial ion transport are readily detected with excellent time resolution. The organic electrochemical transistor array serves as a promising platform for physiological studies and drug testing.

    6. Development of a Sperm-Flagella Driven Micro-Bio-Robot (pages 6581–6588)

      Veronika Magdanz, Samuel Sanchez and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302544

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      A new biohybrid micro-robot is developed by capturing bovine sperm cells inside magnetic microtubes that use the motile cells as driving force. These micro-bio-robots can be remotely controlled by an external magnetic field. The performance of micro-robots is described in dependence on tube radius, cell penetration, and temperature. The combination of a biological power source and a microdevice is a compelling approach to the development of new microrobotic devices with fascinating future applications.

    7. A BDOPV-Based Donor–Acceptor Polymer for High-Performance n-Type and Oxygen-Doped Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors (pages 6589–6593)

      Ting Lei, Jin-Hu Dou, Xiao-Yu Cao, Jie-Yu Wang and Jian Pei

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302278

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      An electron-deficient building block BDOPV is developed to construct a new donor–acceptor conjugated polymer BDOPV-2T for high-performance n-type and oxygen-doped ambipolar polymer field-effect transistors. A high electron mobility up to 1.74 cm2 V−1 s−1 is demonstrated under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the oxygen-doping effect and possible mechanism are discussed.

    8. A Single-Electrode Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator as Self-Powered Tracking System (pages 6594–6601)

      Ya Yang, Yu Sheng Zhou, Hulin Zhang, Ying Liu, Sangmin Lee and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302453

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      A newly designed triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated based on a contact-separation process between an Al foil and a finite size polyamide (PA) film. The working mechanism is based on charge transfer between the Al foil and ground. A 4×4 matrix of TENG array can be used for tracking motion by recording the output voltages signals in real-time to form a pressure map.

    9. Carbon Nanotube – Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for Thermal Energy Harvesting Applications (pages 6602–6606)

      Mark S. Romano, Na Li, Dennis Antiohos, Joselito M. Razal, Andrew Nattestad, Stephen Beirne, Shaoli Fang, Yongsheng Chen, Rouhollah Jalili, Gordon G. Wallace, Ray Baughman and Jun Chen

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303295

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      By controlling the SWNT-rGO electrode composition and thickness to attain the appropriate porosity and tortuosity, the electroactive surface area is maximized while rapid diffusion of the electrolyte through the electrode is maintained. This leads to an increase in exchange current density between the electrode and electrolyte which results in enhanced thermocell performance.

    10. Ultrahigh Thermoelectric Performance by Electron and Phonon Critical Scattering in Cu2Se1-xIx (pages 6607–6612)

      Huili Liu, Xun Yuan, Ping Lu, Xun Shi, Fangfang Xu, Ying He, Yunshan Tang, Shengqiang Bai, Wenqing Zhang, Lidong Chen, Yue Lin, Lei Shi, He Lin, Xingyu Gao, Xingmin Zhang, Hang Chi and Ctirad Uher

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302660

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      Iodine-doped Cu2Se shows a significantly improved thermoelectric performance during phase transitions by electron and phonon critical scattering, leading to a dramatic increase in zT by a factor of 3–7 times culminating in zT values of 2.3 at 400 K.

    11. An Exceptional Artificial Photocatalyst, Nih-CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Hybrid, Made In Situ from CdSe Quantum Dots and Nickel Salts for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution (pages 6613–6618)

      Zhi-Jun Li, Jiu-Ju Wang, Xu-Bing Li, Xiang-Bing Fan, Qing-Yuan Meng, Ke Feng, Bin Chen, Chen-Ho Tung and Li-Zhu Wu

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302908

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      A novel hybrid Nih-CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dot is a simple and exceptional artificial photocatalyst for H2 production from 2-propanol aqueous solution. Studies on the nature of the artificial photocatalyst and mechanism for H2 production demonstrate that the synthetic strategy is general and the artificial photocatalyst holds promise for light capture, electron transfer, and catalysis at the surface of the Nih-CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots, leading to a self-healing system for H2 evolution in harmony.

    12. Targeted Synthesis of Porous Aromatic Frameworks and their Composites for Versatile, Facile, Efficacious, and Durable Antibacterial Polymer Coatings (pages 6619–6624)

      Ye Yuan, Fuxing Sun, Feng Zhang, Hao Ren, Mingyi Guo, Kun Cai, Xiaofei Jing, Xue Gao and Guangshan Zhu

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301955

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      Novel quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks, PAF-50, and their composites, AgCl-PAF-50, have been synthesized to effectively and efficiently inhibit the growth of bacteria. Most importantly, both PAF-50 and AgCl-PAF-50 have excellent compatibility with conventional polymers, which lead to great operation flexibility and versatility for antibactrial coatings on various medical devices simply via solution or spray coating.

    13. Multifunctional CNT-Polymer Composites for Ultra-Tough Structural Supercapacitors and Desalination Devices (pages 6625–6632)

      Jim Benson, Igor Kovalenko, Sofiane Boukhalfa, David Lashmore, Mohan Sanghadasa and Gleb Yushin

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301317

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      Pulsed electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANI) allows the fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive, nonwoven PANI-carbon nanotube (PANI-CNT) composite fabrics. They possess specific tensile strength and a modulus of toughness higher than that of aluminum matrix composites, titanium and aluminum alloys, steels, and many other structural materials. Electrochemical tests show that these nanocomposites additionally offer excellent cycle stability and ion electro-sorption and storage properties.

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