Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 48

December 23, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 48

Pages 6915–7050

  1. Cover Picture

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
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    10. Communications
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      Spin-Coating: In Situ Studies of Phase Separation and Crystallization Directed by Marangoni Instabilities During Spin-Coating (Adv. Mater. 48/2013) (page 6915)

      Daniel T. W. Toolan, Nikki Pullan, Michael J. Harvey, Paul D. Topham and Jonathan R. Howse

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370299

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      A spherulite of PEO is imaged during spin-coating using a combination of crossed polarizers and white-light stroboscopic microscopy. The interplay between the phase separation and crystallization in polymer blends during spin-coating is investigated by J. R. Howse and co-workers on page 7033, revealing the appearance of Bernard cells during the phase separation process and that, critically in blends of PS:PEO, phase separation occurs first, which is then followed by crystallization.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Nanoscale Materials: A General Approach for Fast Detection of Charge Carrier Type and Conductivity Difference in Nanoscale Materials (Adv. Mater. 48/2013) (page 6916)

      Lili Jiang, Bin Wu, Hongtao Liu, Yuan Huang, Jianyi Chen, Dechao Geng, Hongjun Gao and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370300

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      By using tapping-mode AFM with a biased tip, the type of material (e.g.,metallic, n-, or p-type semiconductor) can be distinguished. Taking p-doping of graphene as an example, Y. Q. Liu, H. J. Gao and co-workers, on page 7015, observe a series of false apparent heights of graphene flakes when applying a series of different voltages on the tip. However, the heights under negative bias are higher than those under positive bias at the same value. This is caused by an asymmetric polarization effect, which is related to the p-doping nature of graphene.

  3. Back Cover

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      Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Vibration-Assisted Crystallization Improves Organic/Dielectric Interface in Organic Thin-Film Transistors (Adv. Mater. 48/2013) (page 7054)

      Peter J. Diemer, Christopher R. Lyle, Yaochuan Mei, Christopher Sutton, Marcia M. Payne, John E. Anthony, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas and Oana D. Jurchescu

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370301

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      O. D. Jurchescu and co-workers demonstrate an improved performance in solution-deposited organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on page 6956 through the use of a simple vibration-assisted crystallization. The performance of these OTFTs is comparable with that of singlecrystal transistors of the same material, and similar to that of the best recorded values for solution-processable organic semiconductors. It is easily scalable to large areas. The simplicity of this approach makes it easily transferable to other material systems and to the fabrication of other organic devices, such as organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and sensors.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 48/2013)

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370302

  5. Contents

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    10. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 48/2013) (pages 6917–6922)

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370303

  6. Reviews

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      25th Anniversary Article: Ion Exchange in Colloidal Nanocrystals (pages 6923–6944)

      Shuchi Gupta, Stephen V. Kershaw and Andrey L. Rogach

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302400

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      All change! And not just the II-VI's and IV-VI's! The canon of nanoparticle ion exchange reactions has expanded rapidly, with methodologies to transform most species of quantum dots, nano-rods, wires, etc into complex heterostructures or simply nanoparticles with stoichiometries or morphologies that are otherwise difficult to grow by direct synthesis. Ion exchange can form materials with greatly enhanced performance.

  7. Communications

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    10. Communications
    1. Magnetically Engineered Microcapsules as Intracellular Anchors for Remote Control Over Cellular Mobility (pages 6945–6950)

      Anton M. Pavlov, Bruno G. De Geest, Benoit Louage, Lien Lybaert, Stefaan De Koker, Zdenek Koudelka, Andrei Sapelkin and Gleb B. Sukhorukov

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303287

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      Living cells are anchored with magnetic microcapsules that allow in vitro manipulation via a magnetic field.

    2. Air-Stable n-Channel Organic Single Crystal Field-Effect Transistors Based on Microribbons of Core-Chlorinated Naphthalene Diimide (pages 6951–6955)

      Tao He, Matthias Stolte and Frank Würthner

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303392

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      Ribbon-shaped single crystal transistors based on naphthalene diimide Cl2-NDI exhibit excellent n-channel performance with the mobility as high as 8.6 cm2V−1s−1 in air. The combination of ambient stability and high mobility n-channel transport closes the gap between p- and n-channel SCFETs and opens the door for the manufacture of high performance complementary organic circuits.

    3. Vibration-Assisted Crystallization Improves Organic/Dielectric Interface in Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 6956–6962)

      Peter J. Diemer, Christopher R. Lyle, Yaochuan Mei, Christopher Sutton, Marcia M. Payne, John E. Anthony, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas and Oana D. Jurchescu

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302838

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      Solution processability of organic semiconductors allows high-throughput fabrication on arbitrary substrates at low-cost, but the films often exhibit low performance. Here, we report on a new method for device fabrication, vibration assisted crystallization (VAC) that produces superior films, which approach the fundamental performance limits shown in corresponding single-crystal measurements.

    4. Broadband All-Dielectric Magnifying Lens for Far-Field High-Resolution Imaging (pages 6963–6968)

      Wei Xiang Jiang, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Tian Cheng Han, Qiang Cheng, Hui Feng Ma, Shuang Zhang and Tie Jun Cui

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303657

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      A transformation-optics magnifying lens is reported in the microwave frequency, which is made of inhomogeneous but isotropic dielectrics to reach impedance matching. The authors demonstrate the broadband subwavelength imaging performance and magnification factor experimentally from the far-field radiation patterns.

    5. Broadband Light Extraction from White Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Employing Corrugated Metallic Electrodes with Dual Periodicity (pages 6969–6974)

      Yan-Gang Bi, Jing Feng, Yun-Fei Li, Xu-Lin Zhang, Yue-Feng Liu, Yu Jin and Hong-Bo Sun

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302367

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      A dual-periodic corrugation consisting of two sets of gratings with different periods to realize a broadband light extraction in white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) is shown. A 37 % enhancement in current efficiency and 48 % enhancement in the external quantum efficiency compared to those of the conventional planar devices have been obtained. Besides the much improved efficiency, the dual-periodic corrugated WOLEDs exhibit satisfying viewing characteristics.

    6. Design of Radiation Tolerant Materials Via Interface Engineering (pages 6975–6979)

      Weizhong Han, Michael J. Demkowicz, Nathan A. Mara, Engang Fu, Subhasis Sinha, Anthony D. Rollett, Yongqiang Wang, John S. Carpenter, Irene J. Beyerlein and Amit Misra

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303400

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      A novel interface engineering strategy is proposed to simultaneously achieve superior irradiation tolerance, high strength, and high thermal stability in bulk nanolayered composites of a model face-centered-cubic (Cu)/body-centered-cubic (Nb) system. By synthesizing bulk nanolayered Cu-Nb composites containing interfaces with controlled sink efficiencies, a novel material is designed in which nearly all irradiation-induced defects are annihilated.

    7. Redox-Responsive Self-Healing for Corrosion Protection (pages 6980–6984)

      Ashokanand Vimalanandan, Li-Ping Lv, The Hai Tran, Katharina Landfester, Daniel Crespy and Michael Rohwerder

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302989

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      Raspberry-shaped redox-responsive capsules for storing corrosion inhibitors are introduced, targeted to solve the drawbacks of conducting-polymer-based coating systems for corrosion protection. These capsules synthesized via the miniemulsion technique have a remarkable release property upon reduction (onset of corrosion) and cease release upon reoxidation (passivation of the defect). The self-healing capability is demonstrated by application of these capsules as part of a composite coating on zinc.

    8. Hierarchical Porous Graphene/Polyaniline Composite Film with Superior Rate Performance for Flexible Supercapacitors (pages 6985–6990)

      Yuena Meng, Kai Wang, Yajie Zhang and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303529

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      A highly flexible graphene free-standing film with hierarchical structure is prepared by a facile template method. With a porous structure, the film can be easily bent and cut, and forms a composite with another material as a scaffold. The 3D graphene film exhibits excellent rate capability and its capacitance is further improved by forming a composite with polyaniline nanowire arrays. The flexible hierarchical composite proves to be an excellent electrode material for flexible supercapacitors.

    9. Control of Miscibility and Aggregation Via the Material Design and Coating Process for High-Performance Polymer Blend Solar Cells (pages 6991–6996)

      Erjun Zhou, Junzi Cong, Kazuhito Hashimoto and Keisuke Tajima

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303170

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      A power conversion efficiency of 3.6% for an all-polymer solar cell, which is the highest ever reported, is achieved by introducing a conjugated side chain into a p-type polymer to improve the miscibility of the polymer blend and by adding small amounts of 1,8-diiodooctane to increase the aggregation of n-type polymer.

    10. Enhanced Electrophoretic Motion Using Supercapacitor-Based Energy Storage System (pages 6997–7002)

      Ran Liu, Flory Wong, Wentao Duan and Ayusman Sen

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302538

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      Electrophoretic motion at low potentials is facilitated by redox chemistry occurring in a supercapacitor-based electrochemical energy storage system during charge and discharge. We show that MnO2-modified electrodes can effectively alleviate the electrode surface polarization, the main factor that leads to inefficient electrophoresis at low voltages. A self-powered electrophoretic system based on a discharging battery has been also fabricated.

    11. Solvent Additive to Achieve Highly Ordered Nanostructural Semicrystalline DPP Copolymers: Toward a High Charge Carrier Mobility (pages 7003–7009)

      Tae Kyu An, Il Kang, Hui-jun Yun, Hyojung Cha, Jihun Hwang, Seonuk Park, Jiye Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Dae Sung Chung, Soon-Ki Kwon, Yun-Hi Kim and Chan Eon Park

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301438

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      A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform–CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm2 V-1 s-1. The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

    12. Organic Electrochemical Transistors with Maximum Transconductance at Zero Gate Bias (pages 7010–7014)

      Jonathan Rivnay, Pierre Leleux, Michele Sessolo, Dion Khodagholy, Thierry Hervé, Michel Fiocchi and George G. Malliaras

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303080

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      By varying device geometry we have engineered organic electrochemical transistors that exhibit their maximum transconductance at zero gate bias. This enables the design of a simplified amplifying transducer, allowing for improved integration with biomedical systems where prolonged gate bias can be detrimental.

    13. A General Approach for Fast Detection of Charge Carrier Type and Conductivity Difference in Nanoscale Materials (pages 7015–7019)

      Lili Jiang, Bin Wu, Hongtao Liu, Yuan Huang, Jianyi Chen, Dechao Geng, Hongjun Gao and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302941

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      A general method using a biased atomic force microscopy tip that allows a qualitative, fast, and reliable determination of key electronic properties such as metallic, n-, or p-doped characteristics has been reported for the first time. This method eliminates the detrimental effect of contact in the traditional transport measurement and is much simpler than the common-electrostatic force microscopy detection method, thus providing a powerful tool for fast characterizations of nanomaterials.

    14. Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells with Excellent Sub-Bandgap Transmission for Third Generation Photovoltaics (pages 7020–7026)

      Zach M. Beiley, M. Greyson Christoforo, Paul Gratia, Andrea R. Bowring, Petra Eberspacher, George Y. Margulis, Clément Cabanetos, Pierre M. Beaujuge, Alberto Salleo and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301985

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      Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Spider Silk: Brown Recluse Spider's Nanometer Scale Ribbons of Stiff Extensible Silk (Adv. Mater. 48/2013) (page 7027)

      Hannes C. Schniepp, Sean R. Koebley and Fritz Vollrath

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370304

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      The silk fibers of the brown recluse spider feature a unique morphology: they are 50 nm, thin, flat ribbons. H. C. Schniepp and co-workers test the mechanical properties of individual ribbons in their work on page 7028 and find that they are extraordinarily stiff and feature a nanostructured surface. These filaments—fiber and thin film at the same time—are so extremely thin that they easily wrinkle, fold, and stick to themselves as they wrap around the spiky exoskeleton of an ant.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Brown Recluse Spider's Nanometer Scale Ribbons of Stiff Extensible Silk (pages 7028–7032)

      Hannes C. Schniepp, Sean R. Koebley and Fritz Vollrath

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302740

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      The silk of the recluse spider features a ribbon-like morphology unlike any other spider silk or synthetically spun polymer fiber. These protein ribbons represent free-standing polymer films with a thickness of about 50 nm. Stress–strain characterization of individual fibers via atomic force microscopy reveals that these ribbons, only a few molecular layers of protein thin, rival the mechanical performance of the best silks.

    2. In Situ Studies of Phase Separation and Crystallization Directed by Marangoni Instabilities During Spin-Coating (pages 7033–7037)

      Daniel T. W. Toolan, Nikki Pullan, Michael J. Harvey, Paul D. Topham and Jonathan R. Howse

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302657

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      Results of a pioneering study are presented in which for the first time, crystallization, phase separation and Marangoni instabilities occurring during the spin-coating of polymer blends are directly visualized, in real-space and real-time. The results provide exciting new insights into the process of self-assembly, taking place during spin-coating, paving the way for the rational design of processing conditions, to allow desired morphologies to be obtained.

    3. Molecular Doping Enhances Photoconductivity in Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 7038–7044)

      Yuan Zhang, Huiqiong Zhou, Jason Seifter, Lei Ying, Alexander Mikhailovsky, Alan J. Heeger, Guillermo C. Bazan and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302159

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      Addition of low concentrations (<1:100, dopant:donor) of a fluorinated p-type dopant, F4-TCNQ leads to a considerable enhancement of the photocurrent in PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction solar cells. As a result, the power conversion efficiency increases from 6.41% to 7.94 %.

    4. Voltage-Controlled Nonvolatile Molecular Memory of an Azobenzene Monolayer through Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Contacts (pages 7045–7050)

      Misook Min, Sohyeon Seo, Sae Mi Lee and Hyoyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303335

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      The solution-processed fabrication of an azobenzene (ABC10) monolayer-based nonvolatile memory device on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode is successfully accomplished. Trans-–cis isomerizations of ABC10 between two rGO electrodes in a crossbar device are controlled by applied voltage. An rGO soft-contact top electrode plays an important role in the conformational-change-dependent conductance switching process of an ABC10 monolayer.

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