Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 5

February 6, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 5

Pages 645–787

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Ferroics: Bio-Assembled Nanocomposites in Conch Shells Exhibit Giant Electret Hysteresis (Adv. Mater. 5/2013) (page 645)

      Yingbang Yao, QingXiao Wang, Hongtao Wang, Bei Zhang, Chao Zhao, Zhihong Wang, Zhengkui Xu, Ying Wu, Wei Huang, Pei-Yuan Qian and Xi Xiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370027

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      Seashells have superior mechanical properties. Conch shells, with bio-assembled, hierarchical architectures of nano-CaCO3 laminas sandwiched between biopolymers, exhibit remarkable ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops with giant electrical polarization, creating the possibility for materials for high density energy storage using a bottom-up approach. More details can be found in the article by Xi Xiang Zhang and co-workers on page 711.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Organic Field-Effect Transistors: Remarkable Mobility Increase and Threshold Voltage Reduction in Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Overlaying Discontinuous Nano-Patches of Charge-Transfer Doping Layer on Top of Semiconducting Film (Adv. Mater. 5/2013) (page 646)

      Jong H. Kim, Sun Woo Yun, Byeong-Kwan An, Yoon Deok Han, Seong-Jun Yoon, Jinsoo Joo and Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370028

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      Soo Young Park and co-workers demonstrate on page 719 an effective strategy for implementing discontinuous nanopatches on top of an organic semiconductor, leading to significantly enhanced field-effect mobility with simultaneous reduction of threshold voltages of organic transistors. Mobility and threshold voltage of p-type pentacene are remarkably improved to 4.52 cm2 V−1 s−1 and −0.4 V, and those of n-type Hex-4-TFPTA are also improved to 2.57 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 4.1 V by overlaying the several nanometer-thick nanopatches of charge-transfer doping layer. The interfacial charge-transfer doping decreases the density of trap states in the organic semiconductor, generating desirable transistor performances.

  3. Back Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
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    10. Communications
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      Biomimetics: Catechol-Based Biomimetic Functional Materials (Adv. Mater. 5/2013) (page 792)

      Josep Sedó, Javier Saiz-Poseu, Felix Busqué and Daniel Ruiz-Molina

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370029

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      Catechols participate in several natural processes and functions, ranging from the adhesive properties of marine organisms to the storage of certain metals ions. Accordingly, many scientists worldwide have been studying and mimicking these natural systems to develop new active materials and coatings. On page 653, Daniel Ruiz-Molina and co-workers review in detail a wide variety of relevant studies in this area.

  4. Masthead

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    10. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 5/2013)

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370030

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  6. Review

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    10. Communications
    1. Catechol-Based Biomimetic Functional Materials (pages 653–701)

      Josep Sedó, Javier Saiz-Poseu, Felix Busqué and Daniel Ruiz-Molina

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202343

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      Catechols participate in several natural processes and functions that range from the adhesive properties of marine organisms to the storage of certain metals ions. Accordingly, many scientists worldwide have been studying and mimicking these natural systems to develop new active materials and coatings. A detailed revision of a wide variety of relevant studies in this field is discussed in this Review.

  7. Communications

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    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Substituent Variation Drives Metal/Monolayer/Semiconductor Junctions from Strongly Rectifying to Ohmic Behavior (pages 702–706)

      Abd-Elrazek Haj-Yahia, Omer Yaffe, Tatyana Bendikov, Hagai Cohen, Yishay Feldman, Ayelet Vilan and David Cahen

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203028

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      An eight-orders of magnitude enhancement in current across Hg/X-styrene-Si junctions is caused by merely altering a substituent, X. Interface states are passivated and, depending on X, the Si Schottky junction encompasses the full range from Ohmic to strongly rectifying. This powerful electrostatic molecular effect has immediate implications for interface band alignment and sensing.

    2. On-Chip Quantum Optics with Quantum Dot Microcavities (pages 707–710)

      E. Stock, F. Albert, C. Hopfmann, M. Lermer, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, M. Kamp and S. Reitzenstein

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202778

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      A novel concept for on-chip quantum optics using an internal electrically pumped microlaser is presented. The microlaser resonantly excites a quantum dot microcavity system operating in the weak coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. This work presents the first on-chip application of quantum dot microlasers, and also opens up new avenues for the integration of individual microcavity structures into larger photonic networks.

    3. Bio-Assembled Nanocomposites in Conch Shells Exhibit Giant Electret Hysteresis (pages 711–718)

      Yingbang Yao, QingXiao Wang, Hongtao Wang, Bei Zhang, Chao Zhao, Zhihong Wang, Zhengkui Xu, Ying Wu, Wei Huang, Pei-Yuan Qian and Xi Xiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202079

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      Giant electric polarization (2000–4000 μC cm−2) is observed in natural conch shells. The nanolaminas and biopolymer layers of their unique hierarchical microstructures exhibit ferroelectret behavior and account for the observed polarization. Such huge polarization leads to extremely high pyroelectric coefficients, 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than those of conventional ferroelectric materials. The possibility of tailoring the giant polarization for various applications is considered.

    4. Remarkable Mobility Increase and Threshold Voltage Reduction in Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Overlaying Discontinuous Nano-Patches of Charge-Transfer Doping Layer on Top of Semiconducting Film (pages 719–724)

      Jong H. Kim, Sun Woo Yun, Byeong-Kwan An, Yoon Deok Han, Seong-Jun Yoon, Jinsoo Joo and Soo Young Park

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202789

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      An effective strategy for significantly increasing the organic transistor mobility with simultaneous reduction of the threshold voltage utilizing discontinuous nano-patches of charge-transfer doping layer is demonstrated. By overlaying the nano-patches on top of a given semiconducting film, mobility and threshold voltage of p-type pentacene are remarkably improved to 4.52 cm2 V−1s−1 and −0.4 V, and those of n-type Hex-4-TFPTA are also improved to 2.57 cm2 V−1s−1 and 4.1 V.

    5. Influence of Silver Doping on Electron Transport in Thin Films of PbSe Nanocrystals (pages 725–731)

      Moon Sung Kang, Ayaskanta Sahu, C. Daniel Frisbie and David J. Norris

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203114

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      Field-effect transistors are fabricated from thin films of Ag-doped PbSe nanocrystals to analyze the influence of electronically active impurities on electrical transport in this important material for nanocrystal applications. Data is collected as a function of nanocrystal size, dopant concentration, and temperature. Changes in the Fermi level and transport parameters indicate that Ag is acting as a p-type dopant (acceptor).

    6. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy–Graphene Composites by Using Non-Oxidized Graphene Flakes with Non-Covalent Functionalization (pages 732–737)

      Sung Ho Song, Kwang Hyun Park, Bo Hyun Kim, Yong Won Choi, Gwang Hoon Jun, Dong Ju Lee, Byung-Seon Kong, Kyung-Wook Paik and Seokwoo Jeon

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202736

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      Homogeneous distribution of graphene flakes in a polymer matrix, still preserving intrinsic material properties, is key to successful composite applications. A novel approach is presented to disperse non-oxidized graphene flakes with non-covalent functionalization of 1-pyrenebutyric acid and to fabricate nanocomposites with outstanding thermal conductivity (∼1.53 W/mK) and mechanical properties (∼1.03 GPa).

    7. Room-Temperature Electron Spin Amplifier Based on Ga(In)NAs Alloys (pages 738–742)

      Yuttapoom Puttisong, Irina A. Buyanova, Aaron J. Ptak, Charles W. Tu, Lutz Geelhaar, Henning Riechert and Weimin M. Chen

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202597

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      The first experimental demonstration of a spin amplifier at room temperature is presented. An efficient, defect-enabled spin amplifier based on a non-magnetic semiconductor, Ga(In)NAs, is proposed and demonstrated, with a large spin gain (up to 2700% at zero field) for conduction electrons and a high cut-off frequency of up to 1 GHz.

    8. A General Approach Towards Thermoplastic Multishape-Memory Polymers via Sequence Structure Design (pages 743–748)

      Yingwu Luo, Yunlong Guo, Xiang Gao, Bo-Geng Li and Tao Xie

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202884

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      The chain sequence of a poly(styrene-co-methyl acrylate) copolymer is designed to form a V-shaped gradient sequence via controlled/living radical emulsion copolymerization. This specially designed chain sequence gives this common copolymer the capacity of multishape memory. The copolymer can sequentially recover to its permanent shape from three or more previously programmed temporary shapes with the stimulus of temperature.

    9. Dual-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Colorimetric Recognition and Testing of Carbohydrates with a Dispersion-Dominated Chromogenic Process (pages 749–754)

      Mingxi Zhang, Guangyan Qing, Chenling Xiong, Ran Cui, Dai-Wen Pang and Taolei Sun

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203289

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      A dispersion-dominated colorimetric approach for the recognition of carbohydrates based on biomolecule-responsive AuNPs is presented. Taking advantage of the unique dual-responsiveness of smart copolymers, the aggregation and dispersion of AuNPs can be modulated by both temperature and different kinds of carbohydrates, giving rise to a novel chromogenic mechanism for the recognition and testing of carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by MoSx Grown on Graphene-Protected 3D Ni Foams (Adv. Mater. 5/2013) (page 755)

      Yung-Huang Chang, Cheng-Te Lin, Tzu-Yin Chen, Chang-Lung Hsu, Yi-Hsien Lee, Wenjing Zhang, Kung-Hwa Wei and Lain-Jong Li

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370032

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      A three-dimensional Ni foam deposited with graphene layers is used as a conducting solid support to load MoSx catalysts for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Growing graphene sheets on Ni foams provides robust protection and efficiently increases stability in acid, as shown by Lain-Jong Li and co-workers on page 756. The superior performance in terms of hydrogen evolution is attributed to the high catalyst loading surface and weight.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by MoSx Grown on Graphene-Protected 3D Ni Foams (pages 756–760)

      Yung-Huang Chang, Cheng-Te Lin, Tzu-Yin Chen, Chang-Lung Hsu, Yi-Hsien Lee, Wenjing Zhang, Kung-Hwa Wei and Lain-Jong Li

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202920

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      A three-dimensional Ni foam deposited with graphene layers on surfaces is used as a conducting solid support to load MoSx catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. The graphene sheets grown on Ni foams provide robust protection and efficiently increase the stability in acid. The superior performance of hydrogen evolution is attributed to the relatively high catalyst loading weight as well as its relatively low resistance.

    2. Investigating the Motion of Diblock Copolymer Assemblies in Ionic Liquids by In Situ Electron Microscopy (pages 761–765)

      Ulrich Mansfeld, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203423

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      The movement of individual block copolymer micelles in free-standing films of ionic liquids is investigated by transmission electron microscopy with the aim of providing an easily accessible high-resolution imaging tool for the in situ observation of particle movement in a liquid environment. A proof of concept and first studies on the behavior of individual particles in the fluid are demonstrated.

    3. High-Performance NO2 Sensors Based on Chemically Modified Graphene (pages 766–771)

      Wenjing Yuan, Anran Liu, Liang Huang, Chun Li and Gaoquan Shi

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203172

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      Covalently grafting reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets with sulfophenyl or ethylenediamine groups can produce chemically modified graphene (CMG) for fabricating high-performance gas sensors. The NO2 sensors based on these CMGs exhibit sensitivities 4 to 16 times higher than that of a sensor based on rGO. They also show excellent selectivity and repeatability without the aid of UV-light or thermal treatment.

    4. Transient Enhancement and Spectral Narrowing of The Photothermal Effect of Plasmonic Nanoparticles Under Pulsed Excitation (pages 772–776)

      Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Alexey N. Volkov, Xiangwei Wu and Dmitri O. Lapotko

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204083

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      The transient 100-fold enhancement and spectral narrowing to 2 nm of the photothermal conversion by solid gold nanospheres under near-infrared excitation with a short laser pulse is reported. This non-stationary effect was observed for a wide range of optical fluences starting from 10 mJ cm−2 for single nanospheres, their ensembles and aggregated clusters in water, in vitro and in vivo.

    5. Uniform Polypyrrole Nanoparticles with High Photothermal Conversion Efficiency for Photothermal Ablation of Cancer Cells (pages 777–782)

      Zhengbao Zha, Xiuli Yue, Qiushi Ren and Zhifei Dai

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202211

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      Uniform polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles are fabricated from a facile one-step aqueous dispersion polymerization. Owing to their high photothermal conversion efficiency and photostability compared with the well-known Au nanorods, as well as their good colloidal stability and biocompatibility, the resulting PPy nanoparticles can used as a novel promising photothermal ablation coupling agent for targeted treatment of cancer.

    6. All Conjugated Copolymer Excitonic Multiferroics (pages 783–787)

      Jessica Lohrman, Yueying Liu, Shaofeng Duan, Xiaoyong Zhao, Manfred Wuttig and Shenqiang Ren

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204113

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      A substantial magnetoelectric coupling effect of an excitonic all-conjugated block copolymer multiferroics consisting of electronically distinct polythiophene derivatives is reported. The observations open new avenues for the multifunctional all-conjugated block copolymer synthesis and electric field tunable multiferroic devices.

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