Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 6

February 13, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 6

Pages 793–933

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Flexible Electronics: Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Reduced Graphene Oxide/Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Double-Floating-Gate Structure for Low-Voltage Flexible Flash Memory (Adv. Mater. 6/2013) (page 793)

      Su-Ting Han, Ye Zhou, Chundong Wang, Lifang He, Wenjun Zhang and V. A. L. Roy

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370033

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      V. A. L. Roy and co-workers report on page 872 a hybrid double floating gate low voltage flexible flash memory device by utilizing rGO sheets monolayer and Au NPs array as upper and lower floating gates respectively. As a buffer layer, rGO traps charges and also introduces an energy barrier between Au NPs and the channel, eventually enhancing both the retention time and memory window. The proposed memory device has been extended to flexible substrates to facilitate this method to build innovative flash memories.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Non-Linear Optics: Spontaneous Emission and Nonlinear Response Enhancement by Silver Nanoparticles in a Nd3+-Doped Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Laser Crystal (Adv. Mater. 6/2013) (page 794)

      Eduardo Yraola, Pablo Molina, José L. Plaza, Mariola O. Ramírez and Luisa E. Bausá

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370034

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      Periodic distributions of silver nanoparticles are self-assembled on a Nd3+-doped periodicallypoled ferroelectric laser crystal. The plasmonic resonances supported by the metallic arrays produce an enhancement of the Nd3+ luminescence, and a remarkable intensification of the second harmonic generated signal. Further details can be found in the article by Pablo Molina and coworkers on page 910.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      InN Nanowires: Energy Harvesting from the Obliquely Aligned InN Nanowire Array with a Surface Electron-Accumulation Layer (Adv. Mater. 6/2013) (page 936)

      Nai-Jen Ku, Chao-Hung Wang, Jun-Han Huang, Hsin-Chiao Fang, Po-Chien Huang and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370035

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      The glancing angle deposition technique can be employed to control the growth direction of InN nanorods, enabling larger deformation attainable merely from external normal forces for potential applications in nanopiezotronic and nanogenerator devices. This study by Chuan-Pu Liu and co-workers on page 861 demonstrates tremendous improvement in electricity output of nanogenerators made of obliquely aligned InN nanorod arrays from the ambient environment, leading to the realization of self-powered nanodevices.

  4. Masthead

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 6/2013)

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370036

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  6. Review

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    6. Contents
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    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Materiomics: An -omics Approach to Biomaterials Research (pages 802–824)

      Steven W. Cranford, Jan de Boer, Clemens van Blitterswijk and Markus J. Buehler

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202553

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      In order to exploit materials in biotechnology, the complexity at both sides of the interface—the material and the living organism—needs to be considered. Such research necessitates complementary holistic and reductionist approaches, an effort which we refer to as “materiomics”. Here it is we outlined how materiomics sets the stage for a transformative change in the approach to biomaterials, to enable the design of tailored and functional materials.

  7. Communication

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    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. A Selenium-Substituted Low-Bandgap Polymer with Versatile Photovoltaic Applications (pages 825–831)

      Letian Dou, Wei-Hsuan Chang, Jing Gao, Chun-Chao Chen, Jingbi You and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203827

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      A reduction of the bandgap and an enhancement of the charge transport properties of a LBG polymer (PBDTT-DPP) can be achieved simultaneously by changing the sulfur atoms on the DPP unit to selenium atoms. The newly designed polymer, PBDTT-SeDPP (Eg = 1.38 eV), shows excellent photovoltaic performance in single junction devices with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over 7% and photo-response up to 900 nm. A tandem polymer solar cell and a visibly transparent solar cell based on PBDTT-SeDPP show 9.5% and 4.5% PCEs, which are superior to those based on PBDTT-DPP.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Wavelength Tunable CdSe Nanowire Lasers Based on the Absorption-Emission-Absorption Process (Adv. Mater. 6/2013) (page 832)

      Jiabei Li, Chao Meng, Ying Liu, Xiaoqin Wu, Yize Lu, Yu Ye, Lun Dai, Limin Tong, Xu Liu and Qing Yang

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370038

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      A wide-wavelength tunable laser is demonstrated on a single non-doped CdSe nanowire (NW) by gradually cutting the NW shorter, without changing other experimental conditions such as pumping intensity and position. The corresponding mechanism for the large wavelength shifts is determined as the absorption–emission–absorption process in polar CdSe NWs. This new efficient method has prospective applications ranging from optical telecommunications to environmental monitoring. Further details can be found in the article by Qing Yang and co-workers on page 833.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communication
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Wavelength Tunable CdSe Nanowire Lasers Based on the Absorption-Emission-Absorption Process (pages 833–837)

      Jiabei Li, Chao Meng, Ying Liu, Xiaoqin Wu, Yize Lu, Yu Ye, Lun Dai, Limin Tong, Xu Liu and Qing Yang

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203692

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      Wavelength tunability of lasers is one of the most important parameters for achieving practical applications such as optical communication, environmental monitoring, and spectroscopy analysis. A wide-wavelength tunable laser is demonstrated on a single non-doped CdSe nanowire (NW) without changing pumping intensity and position, but by simply gradually cutting the NW shorter instead. The corresponding mechanism for the large wavelength shifts is determined as the absorption-emission-absorption (AEA) process in polar CdSe NWs.

    2. Synthesis and Photovoltaic Effect in Dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers (pages 838–843)

      Hae Jung Son, Luyao Lu, Wei Chen, Tao Xu, Tianyue Zheng, Bridget Carsten, Joseph Strzalka, Seth B. Darling, Lin X. Chen and Luping Yu

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204238

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      Conjugated polymers based on a heteroacene, 3,7-dialkyl-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (DBD), are synthesized. These polymers show broad UV–vis absorption with energy bandgaps below 1.7 eV. PTDBD2, showing good miscibility in a polymer/phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend film, achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.6%. The results indicate that copolymers containing DBD are promising candidates for high-performance organic solar cells.

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      Optimizing Diffusive Transport Through a Synthetic Membrane Channel (pages 844–849)

      Stefano Pagliara, Christian Schwall and Ulrich F. Keyser

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203500

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      Channel-facilitated transport is investigated by introducing a novel, synthetic model system at the microscale. Colloidal particle flux is increased beyond the limit of free diffusion by introducing an attractive and tunable binding potential created by holographic optical tweezers. The optimal potential depth enhances the diffusive current by a factor of three.

    4. Flexible Wireless Temperature Sensors Based on Ni Microparticle-Filled Binary Polymer Composites (pages 850–855)

      Jin Jeon, Han-Bo-Ram Lee and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204082

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      Ni microparticle-filled binary polymer composites are developed as temperature sensors which possess greater improved reproducibility compared to single polymer composite sensors.

    5. Sub-5 nm Ln3+-doped BaLuF5 Nanocrystals: A Platform to Realize Upconversion via Interparticle Energy Transfer (IPET) (pages 856–860)

      Shyam Sarkar, Brahmaiah Meesaragandla, Chanchal Hazra and Venkataramanan Mahalingam

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203641

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      The upconversion process is reported to occur via interparticle energy transfer (IPET) achieved with Ln3+-doped BaLuF5 (Ln = Tm and Yb) nanocrystals in the size range of sub 5 nm. Both Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions are independently doped in BaLuF5 nanocrystals. Colloidal mixtures containing the above two nanocrystals show strong upconversion emission in the blue, red, and near-IR regions via IPET.

    6. Energy Harvesting from the Obliquely Aligned InN Nanowire Array with a Surface Electron-Accumulation Layer (pages 861–866)

      Nai-Jen Ku, Chao-Hung Wang, Jun-Han Huang, Hsin-Chiao Fang, Po-Chien Huang and Chuan-Pu Liu

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203416

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      The glancing-angle deposition technique can be used to control the growth direction of InN nanorods and nanowires, enabling potential applications for fabricating nanopiezotronics and nanogenerators. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using an obliquely aligned InN nanorod array to harvest electricity from the ambient environment, leading to the realization of self-powered nanodevices.

    7. A Self-Powered ZnO-Nanorod/CuSCN UV Photodetector Exhibiting Rapid Response (pages 867–871)

      Sabina M. Hatch, Joe Briscoe and Steve Dunn

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204488

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      The pre-existing Fermi level alignment between ZnO and CuSCN semiconductors gives rise to the two key elements needed for a self-powered, binary-response UV- sensor: photovoltaic behavior and low turn-on bias. Nanosecond response times, self-powered performance, and long-term stability, coupled with scalable, inexpensive fabrication on the nanoscale, offer currently unmatched progression towards self-sufficient nanoscale systems.

    8. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Reduced Graphene Oxide/Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Double-Floating-Gate Structure for Low-Voltage Flexible Flash Memory (pages 872–877)

      Su-Ting Han, Ye Zhou, Chundong Wang, Lifang He, Wenjun Zhang and V. A. L. Roy

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203509

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      A hybrid double-floating-gate flexible memory device by utilizing an rGO-sheet monolayer and a Au NP array as upper and lower floating gates is reported. The rGO buffer layer acts as a charge-trapping layer and introduces an energy barrier between the Au NP lower floating gate and the channel. The proposed memory device demonstrates a strong improvement in both field-effect-transistor (FET) and memory characteristics.

    9. Intermixing at the Pentacene-Fullerene Bilayer Interface: A Molecular Dynamics Study (pages 878–882)

      Yao-Tsung Fu, Chad Risko and Jean-Luc Brédas

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203412

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      Molecular dynamics simulations of the pentacene-C60 donor–acceptor interface reveal the potential for miscibility and disorder in “simple” bilayer organic photovoltaic architectures. The results fall in line with growing evidence of morphological complexity at such interfaces, and will impact descriptions of the electronic processes taking place during the photovoltaic effect.

    10. Nano-Newton Transverse Force Sensor Using a Vertical GaN Nanowire based on the Piezotronic Effect (pages 883–888)

      Yu Sheng Zhou, Ronan Hinchet, Ya Yang, Gustavo Ardila, Rudeesun Songmuang, Fang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Weihua Han, Ken Pradel, Laurent Montès, Mireille Mouis and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203263

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      Enhanced transverse force sensitivity of vertically aligned GaN nanowires is demonstrated using the piezotronic effect. The transverse force sensitivity is calculated to be 1.24 ± 0.13 ln(A)/nN, with a resolution better than 16 nN and the response time less than 5 ms. The nano-Newton force resolution shows the potential for piezoelectric semiconductor materials to be used as the main building block for micro-/nanosensor arrays or artificial skin.

    11. Phase Separation and Bulk p-n Transition in Single Crystals of Bi2Te2Se Topological Insulator (pages 889–893)

      Jian-Li Mi, Martin Bremholm, Marco Bianchi, Kasper Borup, Simon Johnsen, Martin Søndergaard, Dandan Guan, Richard C. Hatch, Philip Hofmann and Bo B. Iversen

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203542

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      Separation of ordered and disordered phases is found along the growth axis of a Bi2Te2Se crystal rod. A high bulk resistivity is found in phase II, which is an ideal candidate for investigation of the transport properties of the surface states. The bulk insulating feature of phase II is caused by the opposing effects of different types of defects.

    12. Surface Energy Engineered, High-Resolution Micropatterning of Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films (pages 894–898)

      Nam Hee Kim, Beom Jun Kim, Yeongun Ko, Jeong Ho Cho and Suk Tai Chang

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203881

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      Fast and reproducible patterning of high-resolution rGO microstructures over a large area directly on various substrates by modulating the surface energy is reported. The pattern formation of rGO thin films is based on the difference in the adhesion strength between the mold/rGO and rGO/substrates interfaces. Such highly defined rGO micropatterns are applied as electrodes for high-performance flexible and transparent OFETs.

    13. Electric-Field Screening in Atomically Thin Layers of MoS2: the Role of Interlayer Coupling (pages 899–903)

      Andres Castellanos-Gomez, Emmanuele Cappelluti, Rafael Roldán, Nicolás Agraït, Francisco Guinea and Gabino Rubio-Bollinger

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203731

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      The electrostatic screening in single and few-layer MoS2 sheets is studied. Electrostatic force microscopy is used to probe the electric field generated by charge impurities in the substrate and incompletely screened by MoS2 sheets. A non-linear Thomas–Fermi theory is employed to interpret the experimental results, demonstrating the important role of the interlayer coupling in the screening of MoS2.

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      Polymerization Inhibition by Triplet State Absorption for Nanoscale Lithography (pages 904–909)

      Benjamin Harke, William Dallari, Giulia Grancini, Daniele Fazzi, Fernando Brandi, Annamaria Petrozza and Alberto Diaspro

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204141

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      The diffraction limit in direct-laser-writing (DLW) lithography can be circumvented by selective inhibition of the polymerization. By combining nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory it is demonstrated that polymerization inhibition is possible by a direct absorption of the lowest triplet state. Polymerization inhibition by triplet state absorption (TSA) has the potential to bring DLW lithography into the nanometer scale.

    15. Spontaneous Emission and Nonlinear Response Enhancement by Silver Nanoparticles in a Nd3+-Doped Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Laser Crystal (pages 910–915)

      Eduardo Yraola, Pablo Molina, José L. Plaza, Mariola O. Ramírez and Luisa E. Bausá

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203176

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      Periodic arrays of silver nanoparticles on a Nd3+-doped periodically poled ferroelectric laser crystal are selectively self-assembled by photochemical methods. By exploiting the unique features of plasmonic nanostructures to concentrate electromagnetic fields, an enhancement of Nd3+ luminescence is demonstrated as well as a remarkable increase of the quadratic nonlinear second harmonic generation by a factor of 20, which occurs with the periodicity of the metallic arrays.

    16. Piezoelectric-Polarization-Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance in Depleted-Heterojunction Quantum-Dot Solar Cells (pages 916–921)

      Jian Shi, Ping Zhao and Xudong Wang

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203021

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      Piezoelectric polarization at the ZnO/PbS-quantum-dot (QD) interface can be used to engineer the heterojunction band structure and manipulate the width of the depletion region in the QD layer. This piezotronic modulation enhances charge extraction from the PbS QDs and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of depleted-heterojunction QD solar cells.

    17. Hydrophobic Interaction-Mediated Capture and Release of Cancer Cells on Thermoresponsive Nanostructured Surfaces (pages 922–927)

      Hongliang Liu, Xueli Liu, Jingxin Meng, Pengchao Zhang, Gao Yang, Bin Su, Kang Sun, Li Chen, Dong Han, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203826

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      Capture and release of cancer cells: a thermoresponsive nanostructured surface is designed to reversibly capture and release cancer cells, wherein hydrophobic interaction helps the realization of target capture/release of cancer cells. The unique nature of the designed platform is based on the synergistic effect of hydrophobic interactions between the smart surface and the hydrophobic anchor (i.e., biotin-BSA), and topographic interactions between the nanostructured substrates and cancer cells.

    18. Graphene-Veiled Gold Substrate for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (pages 928–933)

      Weigao Xu, Jiaqi Xiao, Yanfeng Chen, Yabin Chen, Xi Ling and Jin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204355

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      Graphene is exploited to serve as a seamless and inert veil to fabricate a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate with a passivated surface. This novel approach inherits the concept of metal–molecule isolation (for more well-defined surface interactions) and results in a few superiorities. We find the SERS performance of a graphene-veiled substrate is highly morphology-dependent, and the dynamic process of thermal annealing is investigated in detail by in-situ Raman spectroscopy.

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