Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 8

February 25, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 8

Pages 1081–1220

  1. Cover Picture

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    6. Contents
    7. Review
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    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
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      Hydrogels: Paramagnetic Levitational Assembly of Hydrogels (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1081)

      Savas Tasoglu, Doga Kavaz, Umut Atakan Gurkan, Sinan Guven, Pu Chen, Reila Zheng and Utkan Demirci

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370046

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      Manipulation and assembly of cell-encapsulating hydrogels offer unique opportunities for regenerative medicine, microphysiological system engineering, pharmaceutical research, biological research, and space sciences. Utkan Demirci and co-workers show on page 1137 that temporal and spatial control over hydrogels in microscale can be exerted by exploiting their paramagnetic properties without using magnetic nanoparticles.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Nanowires: Bandgap-Graded CdSxSe1–x Nanowires for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors and Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1082)

      Liang Li, Hao Lu, Zongyin Yang, Limin Tong, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370047

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      Bandgap-graded CdSxSe1−x nanowires are utilized by Liang Li and co-workers on page 1109 for high-performance field-effect transistors and Schottky solar cells. The photovoltaic mechanism is ascribed to the Schottky junction effect and the “type II” band structure which maximizes the driving force for the injection of photoexcited electrons into the CdS through CdSxSe1-x from the CdSe by creating an optimized band alignment.

  3. Back Cover

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      Batteries: Twisting Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Both Wire-Shaped Micro-Supercapacitor and Micro-Battery (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1224)

      Jing Ren, Li Li, Chen Chen, Xuli Chen, Zhenbo Cai, Longbin Qiu, Yonggang Wang, Xingrong Zhu and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370048

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      Aligned carbon nanotube/MnO2 composite fibers are twisted to produce wire-shaped supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries with high performances. The energy densities achieve 92.84 and 35.74 mWh/cm3 while the power densities reach 3.87 and 2.43 W/cm3 during the charge and discharge process, respectively. The wire structure enables many unique applications, e.g., being woven into electronic textiles. More details can be found in the article by Huisheng Peng, Yonggang Wang and co-workers on page 1155.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 8/2013)

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370049

  5. Contents

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    12. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (pages 1083–1089)

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370050

  6. Review

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    1. Methods for Controlling Structure and Photophysical Properties in Polyfluorene Solutions and Gels (pages 1090–1108)

      Matti Knaapila and Andrew P. Monkman

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204296

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      The structural hierarchies of polyfluorenes in solution and gel range from intramolecular structures to the diverse aggregate classes, network structures and agglomerates of these units including the curious beta phase. These structures can be controlled by solvent quality, side chain branching, side chain length, molecular weight, thermal history and myriad functionalisations. These different structures have profound effects on the photophysics of the polymers at the quantitative level. Here, these properties of polyfluorenes are reviewed in detail.

  7. Communications

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    1. Bandgap-Graded CdSxSe1–x Nanowires for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors and Solar Cells (pages 1109–1113)

      Liang Li, Hao Lu, Zongyin Yang, Limin Tong, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204434

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      CdSxSe1–x nanowires with a graded bandgap along the length direction were utilized for field-effect transistors and Schottky junction solar cells. This novel type of nanowires suggests promising electronic and optoelectronic applications in the future.

    2. How to Manipulate Nanoparticles with an Electron Beam? (pages 1114–1117)

      Jo Verbeeck, He Tian and Gustaaf Van Tendeloo

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204206

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      Recently discovered vortex electron waves carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum. Interacting them with gold nanoparticles supported on a thin membrane makes the particles rotate clockwise or anticlockwise with time depending on the sign of the orbital angular momentum of the electron vortex. This experiment opens possibilities to manipulate nanoparticles and study friction on the nanoscale.

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      Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Micro Projector for Light Manipulation (pages 1118–1123)

      Chia Min Chang, Ming Lun Tseng, Bo Han Cheng, Cheng Hung Chu, You Zhe Ho, Hsin Wei Huang, Yung-Chiang Lan, Ding-Wei Huang, Ai Qun Liu and Din Ping Tsai

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203308

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      Using the curved arrangement of Au nanobumps, the scattering of surface plasmon waves are transformed into spots at desired locations and altitudes in three-dimensional space. The light can be modulated into desired light patterns. This work is very promising for compact plasmonic circuitry, projection, live-cell imaging, optical sensing, and holography.

  8. Frontispiece

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    6. Contents
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    12. Communications
    1. Carbon Nanorings and Their Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1124)

      Jie Sun, Haimei Liu, Xu Chen, David G. Evans, Wensheng Yang and Xue Duan

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370051

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      Super-short carbon nanotubes with uniform and molecular scale length, which can be regarded as carbon nanorings (CNRs), are difficult to obtain from long carbon nanotubes. Wensheng Yang and co-workers report on page 1125 a strategy for fabricating CNRs with ∼1 nm length in the confined interlayer galleries of a layered double hydroxide which exhibit excellent lithium storage performance under high-rate charge and discharge.

  9. Communications

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    1. Carbon Nanorings and Their Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties (pages 1125–1130)

      Jie Sun, Haimei Liu, Xu Chen, David G. Evans, Wensheng Yang and Xue Duan

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203108

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      A method involving catalytic growth of carbon nanorings (CNRs) with an outer diameter of ∼20 nm and axial length of ∼1 nm in the confined interlayer galleries of a layered double hydroxide host co-intercalated with a carbon source and charge-balancing anion is reported. The as-prepared CNRs with open tips and a ratio of length to diameter (L/d) of much less than 1 exhibit excellent lithium storage performance, especially large reversible specific capacity under high-rate charge and discharge.

    2. Organometallic Hexahapto Functionalization of Single Layer Graphene as a Route to High Mobility Graphene Devices (pages 1131–1136)

      Santanu Sarkar, Hang Zhang, Jhao-Wun Huang, Fenglin Wang, Elena Bekyarova, Chun Ning Lau and Robert C. Haddon

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203161

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      Organometallic hexahapto (η6)-chromium metal complexation of single-layer graphene, which involves constructive rehybridization of the graphene π-system with the vacant chromium dπ orbital, leads to field effect devices which retain a high degree of the mobility with enhanced on-off ratio. This η6 mode of bonding is quite distinct from the modification in electronic structure induced by conventional covalent σ-bond formation with creation of sp3 carbon centers in graphene lattice and this chemistry is reversible.

    3. Paramagnetic Levitational Assembly of Hydrogels (pages 1137–1143)

      Savas Tasoglu, Doga Kavaz, Umut Atakan Gurkan, Sinan Guven, Pu Chen, Reila Zheng and Utkan Demirci

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200285

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      We have presented, for the first time, hydrogels that can be directed and assembled into 3D constructs by exploiting their magnetic properties without using magnetic particles. We have performed experimental and theoretical analyses to describe hydrogel motion in a fluidic environment under a magnetic field.

    4. Width-Tunable Graphene Nanoribbons on a SiC Substrate with a Controlled Step Height (pages 1144–1148)

      Qingsong Huang, Jae Joon Kim, Ghafar Ali and Sung Oh Cho

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202746

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      An approach to fabricate large-scale graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with tunable ribbon widths is presented. Regular steps with variable heights from 1 to 100 nm can be prepared on a SiC substrate by a low-pressure etching process. Graphene can be epitaxially grown only on the side walls of the steps, thereby leading to GNRs with controllable widths.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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    12. Communications
    1. Temperature-Triggered Collection and Release of Water from Fogs by a Sponge-Like Cotton Fabric (Adv. Mater. 8/2013) (page 1149)

      Helen Yang, Haijin Zhu, Marco M. R. M. Hendrix, Niek J. H. G. M. Lousberg, Gijsbertus de With, A. Catarina C. Esteves and John H. Xin

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370052

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      A sponge-like cotton fabric autonomously collects and releases water from fogs, triggered by day- and night temperature variations, typically encountered in dry areas. The reversible switching between absorbing-superhydrophilic/releasing-superhydrophobic states results from structural changes of a temperature-responsive polymer grafted on the highly rough fabric-surface, as reported by John H. Xin, A. Catarina C. Esteves and co-workers on page 1150. This breakthough may help to reduce water depletion in dry areas.

  11. Communications

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    1. Temperature-Triggered Collection and Release of Water from Fogs by a Sponge-Like Cotton Fabric (pages 1150–1154)

      Helen Yang, Haijin Zhu, Marco M. R. M. Hendrix, Niek J. H. G. M. Lousberg, Gijsbertus de With, A. Catarina C. Esteves and John H. Xin

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204278

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      A sponge-like cotton fabric autonomously collects and releases water from fogs triggered by typical day-and-night temperature variations. The reversible switching between absorbing-superhydrophilic/releasing-superhydrophobic states results from structural changes of a temperature-responsive polymer grafted on the very rough fabric-surface. This material and concept presents a breakthrough into simple and versatile solutions for collection, uni-directional flow, and purification of water captured from the atmosphere.

    2. Twisting Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Both Wire-Shaped Micro-Supercapacitor and Micro-Battery (pages 1155–1159)

      Jing Ren, Li Li, Chen Chen, Xuli Chen, Zhenbo Cai, Longbin Qiu, Yonggang Wang, Xingrong Zhu and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203445

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      Wire-shaped micro-supercapacitor and micro-battery: Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube fibers and composite fibers have been easily twisted to produce both wire-shaped supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries with high performances. The energy densities achieved 92.84 and 35.74 mWh/cm3 while the power densities could reach 3.87 and 2.43 W/cm3 during the charge and discharge process, respectively. The unique structure enables promising applications in various fields, e.g., these wires can be easily integrated into electronic textiles by a conventional weaving technique.

    3. Facile Production of Ordered 3D Platinum Nanowire Networks with “Single Diamond” Bicontinuous Cubic Morphology (pages 1160–1164)

      Samina Akbar, Joanne M. Elliott, Martyn Rittman and Adam M. Squires

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203395

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      Direct electrochemical templating is carried out using a thin layer of a self-assembled diamond phase (QIID) of phytantriol to create a platinum film with a novel nanostructure. Small-angle X-ray scattering shows that the nanostructured platinum films are asymmetrically templated and exhibit “single diamond” morphology with Fd3m symmetry.

    4. ABAB-Symmetric Tetraalkyl Titanyl Phthalocyanines for Solution Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Mobility Approaching 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 (pages 1165–1169)

      Shaoqiang Dong, Cheng Bao, Hongkun Tian, Donghang Yan, Yanhou Geng and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204233

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      In crystals, tetraalkyl vanadyl phthalocyanines (OVPc-Cn) and tetraalkyl titanyl phthalocyanines (OTiPc-Cn) with ABAB symmetry adopt a 2D slipped π–π stacking motif with alkyl chains locating in the space between semiconducting layers formed by Pc cores. Hole mobility approaching 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achieved for spin cast OFETs.

    5. Multi-shell Soft Nanotubes from Cyclic Peptide Templates (pages 1170–1172)

      Robert Chapman, Katrina A. Jolliffe and Sébastien Perrier

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204094

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      Multi-shell nanotubes containing poly(acrylic acid) external shell and polyisoprene internal shells are prepared by exploiting the self-assembly of an alt-(d,l) cyclic peptide template. Crosslinking of the acrylic acid shell, followed by ozonolysis of the polyisoprene, gives access to nanotubes with an internal pore which can be controlled by the degree of polymerization of polyisoprene.

    6. Functionalizing Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials with Antibacterial Silver Particles (pages 1173–1179)

      Jae Sung Lee and William L. Murphy

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203370

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      Antimicrobial silver particles are created on calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials by sequentially incubating in citric acid and silver nitrate solutions. The subsequent silver release kinetics and released dosage are controlled by simply changing the solution conditions during growth of silver particles. Released silver efficiently suppresses the growth of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli without significant cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells.

    7. Hierarchical MoS2/Polyaniline Nanowires with Excellent Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1180–1184)

      Lichun Yang, Sinong Wang, Jianjiang Mao, Junwen Deng, Qingsheng Gao, Yi Tang and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203999

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      Hierarchical MoS2/polyaniline nanowires, integrating MoS2 nanosheets with conductive polyaniline, serve as prominent anode materials for Li-ion batteries, presenting high capacity and good cyclability. The polyaniline-hybrid structure and hierarchical features significantly promote the Li-storage performance as compared with the bare MoS2, indicating new opportunities for developing electrode nanomaterials.

    8. Carbon Nanotube Sponge-Array Tandem Composites with Extended Energy Absorption Range (pages 1185–1191)

      Zhiping Zeng, Xuchun Gui, Zhiqiang Lin, Luhui Zhang, Yi Jia, Anyuan Cao, Yuan Zhu, Rong Xiang, Tianzhun Wu and Zikang Tang

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203901

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      Tandem composites made by integrating random sponge and aligned array layers show wider energy absorption range than individual layers. These composites have potential applications in energy absorption and cushioning under mechanical compression.

    9. Simple Precision Creation of Digitally Specified, Spatially Heterogeneous, Engineered Tissue Architectures (pages 1192–1198)

      Umut Atakan Gurkan, Yantao Fan, Feng Xu, Burcu Erkmen, Emel Sokullu Urkac, Gunes Parlakgul, Jacob Bernstein, Wangli Xing, Edward S. Boyden and Utkan Demirci

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203261

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      Complex architectures of integrated circuits are achieved through multiple layer photolithography, which has empowered the semiconductor industry. We adapt this philosophy for tissue engineering with a versatile, scalable, and generalizable microfabrication approach to create engineered tissue architectures composed of digitally specifiable building blocks, each with tuned structural, cellular, and compositional features.

    10. A Novel Stretchable Coaxial NiTi-Sheath/Cu-Core Composite with High Strength and High Conductivity (pages 1199–1202)

      Shijie Hao, Lishan Cui, Zonghai Chen, Daqiang Jiang, Yang Shao, Jiang Jiang, Minshu Du, Yandong Wang, Dennis. E. Brown and Yang Ren

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203762

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      A novel stretchable coaxial NiTi-sheath/Cu-core composite wire was fabricated by means of simple mechanical processing. This composite simultaneously possesses high electric conductivity, high strength and superelasticity. This set of properties renders this composite a unique position in the properties chart of all known electrical conductor materials.

    11. Conjugated Polymer-Coated Bacteria for Multimodal Intracellular and Extracellular Anticancer Activity (pages 1203–1208)

      Chunlei Zhu, Qiong Yang, Fengting Lv, Libing Liu and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204550

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      Multifunctional cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (CP)-coated bacteria are fabricated for drug loading, delivery and release with multimodal anticancer activity. Facilitated by the collaborative release effect caused by CP and an antibiotic polymyxin B, the loaded toxins leak out from the vectors in considerable amounts and lead to tumor cell death. In addition, the CP coated bacterial vectors can sentisize ROS, which favors light-mediated tumor cell killing.

    12. A Highly Tunable Biocompatible and Multifunctional Biodegradable Elastomer (pages 1209–1215)

      Maria José Nunes Pereira, Ben Ouyang, Cathryn A. Sundback, Nora Lang, Ingeborg Friehs, Shwetha Mureli, Irina Pomerantseva, Jacob McFadden, Mark C. Mochel, Olive Mwizerwa, Pedro del Nido, Debanjan Sarkar, Peter T. Masiakos, Robert Langer, Lino S. Ferreira and Jeffrey M. Karp

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203824

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      Biodegradable elastomers synthesized under mild conditions with highly tunable mechanical properties are described. These elastomeric biomaterials are biocompatible, exhibit minimal deformation following cyclical tensile loading, and permit tight control over the release kinetics of encapsulated bioactive molecules.

    13. Engineered Large Spider Eggcase Silk Protein for Strong Artificial Fibers (pages 1216–1220)

      Zhi Lin, Qinqiu Deng, Xiang-Yang Liu and Daiwen Yang

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204357

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      A simple strategy is developed to produce large silk proteins in commercially available E. coli. The strategy is demonstrated for the production of a modified eggcase silk protein with a molecular weight of ∼378 kDa. Using a non-toxic water coagulation bath developed here, the recombinant protein is spun into artificial fibers that reach higher tenacity than its native counterpart. The strategy is generally applicable to synthesizing other types of large silk proteins with tandem repetitive domains.

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