Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 11

March 19, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 11

Pages 1633–1787

  1. Cover Picture

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    6. Masthead
    7. Contents
    8. Reviews
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    10. Communications
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      Hierarchical Patterns: Harnessing Localized Ridges for High-Aspect-Ratio Hierarchical Patterns with Dynamic Tunability and Multifunctionality (Adv. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1633)

      Changyong Cao, Hon Fai Chan, Jianfeng Zang, Kam W. Leong and Xuanhe Zhao

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470068

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      A simple yet effective method, described on page 1763 by X. Zhao and co-workers, to generate high-aspect-ratio, hierarchical, and dynamically tunable topographical patterns over large areas by harnessing the localized-ridge instability in nanofilms. The new patterns have led to extraordinary functions, including extremely stretchable super-hydrophobic coatings and biomimetic cell-culture substrates capable of controlled stem-cell alignment on demand.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    7. Contents
    8. Reviews
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    10. Communications
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      Organic Transistors: 25th Anniversary Article: Microstructure Dependent Bias Stability of Organic Transistors (Adv. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1634)

      Wi Hyoung Lee, Hyun Ho Choi, Do Hwan Kim and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470069

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      Recent studies of the bias-stress-driven electrical instability of organic field-effect transistors are reviewed by K. Cho, D. H. Kim, and co-workers on page 1660. The principles underlying the bias instability are discussed, particularly the mechanisms of charge trapping. The charge-trapping phenomena in the semiconductor, the dielectric, and the semiconductor-dielectric interface are analyzed with special attention to the microstructural dependence of bias instability.

  3. Inside Back Cover

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      Solar Cells: Core-Sheath Carbon Nanostructured Fibers for Efficient Wire-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1791)

      Xin Fang, Zhibin Yang, Longbin Qiu, Hao Sun, Shaowu Pan, Jue Deng, Yongfeng Luo and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470073

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      A core-sheath carbon nanostructured fiber is prepared through a simple solution approach as demonstrated on page 1694 by H. Peng and co-workers. Benefitting from the synergetic interaction between the graphene-contained carbonaceous sheath as well as the twisted carbon nanotube fiber core, the composite fiber is integrated with both high electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. A wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated with this fiber as the counter electrode and achieves high energy conversion efficiency.

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      Molecular Wires: Nanoscale Electrical Investigation of Layer-by-Layer Grown Molecular Wires (Adv. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1792)

      Chiara Musumeci, Gabriella Zappalà, Natalia Martsinovich, Emanuele Orgiu, Swen Schuster, Silvio Quici, Michael Zharnikov, Alessandro Troisi, Antonino Licciardello and Paolo Samorì

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470074

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      Nanoscopic metal–molecule–metal junctions consisting of Fe-bis(terpyridine)-based ordered nanostructures grown in layer-by-layer fashion on a solid support are investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy, as described on page 1688 by P. Samorì, A. Licciardello, A. Troisi and co-workers. Hopping is demonstrated as the main charge-transport mechanism both experimentally and theoretically.

  5. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 11/2014)

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470071

  6. Contents

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  7. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Supramolecular Materials for Regenerative Medicine (pages 1642–1659)

      Job Boekhoven and Samuel I. Stupp

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304606

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      The emerging science of supramolecular materials in regenerative medicine is reviewed. In supramolecular materials, molecular building blocks are designed to interact with one another via noncovalent interactions in order to create function, which allows the creation of structures similar to those found in living systems that combine order and dynamics through the reversibility of intermolecular bonds. For regenerative medicine there is a great need to develop materials that signal cells effectively, deliver or bind bioactive agents in vivo at controlled rates, have highly tunable mechanical properties, but at the same time, can biodegrade safely and rapidly after fulfilling their function.

    2. 25th Anniversary Article: Microstructure Dependent Bias Stability of Organic Transistors (pages 1660–1680)

      Wi Hyoung Lee, Hyun Ho Choi, Do Hwan Kim and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304665

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent studies of the bias-stress-driven electrical instability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reviewed. The principles underlying this bias instability are discussed, particularly the mechanisms of charge trapping. The charge-trapping phenomena in the semiconductor, the dielectric, and the semiconductor-dielectric interface are analyzed with special attention to the microstructural dependence of bias instability.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    6. Masthead
    7. Contents
    8. Reviews
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Mesoporous Silica: A Perfectly Periodic Three-Dimensional Protein/Silica Mesoporous Structure Produced by an Organism (Adv. Mater. 11/2014) (page 1681)

      Igor Zlotnikov, Peter Werner, Horst Blumtritt, Andreas Graff, Yannicke Dauphin, Emil Zolotoyabko and Peter Fratzl

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470072

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      The discovery of a perfectly ordered 3D mesoporous protein/silica structure in the axial filament of the marine sponge Monorhaphis chuni is reported by I. Zlotnikov and co-workers on page 1682. The structure belongs to a body-centered tetragonal symmetry system and comprises interconnecting lattices of protein (red) and silica (green), templated by the self-assembled, enzymatically active protein silicatein, whose primary function is the precipitation of silica.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    8. Reviews
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    10. Communications
    1. A Perfectly Periodic Three-Dimensional Protein/Silica Mesoporous Structure Produced by an Organism (pages 1682–1687)

      Igor Zlotnikov, Peter Werner, Horst Blumtritt, Andreas Graff, Yannicke Dauphin, Emil Zolotoyabko and Peter Fratzl

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304696

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      The discovery of perfectly ordered 3D mesoporous protein/silica structure in the axial filament of the marine sponge Monorhaphis chuni is reported. The structure belongs to body-centered tetragonal symmetry system (a = 9.88 nm, c = 10.83 nm) and comprises interconnecting lattices of protein and silica, templated by the self-assembled, enzymatically active protein-silicatein, whose primary function is the precipitation of silica.

    2. Nanoscale Electrical Investigation of Layer-by-Layer Grown Molecular Wires (pages 1688–1693)

      Chiara Musumeci, Gabriella Zappalà, Natalia Martsinovich, Emanuele Orgiu, Swen Schuster, Silvio Quici, Michael Zharnikov, Alessandro Troisi, Antonino Licciardello and Paolo Samorì

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304848

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoscopic metal–molecule–metal junctions consisting of Fe-bis(terpyridine)-based ordered nanostructures are grown in layer-by-layer fashion on a solid support. Hopping is demonstrated as the main charge-transport mechanism both experimentally and theoretically.

    3. Core-Sheath Carbon Nanostructured Fibers for Efficient Wire-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1694–1698)

      Xin Fang, Zhibin Yang, Longbin Qiu, Hao Sun, Shaowu Pan, Jue Deng, Yongfeng Luo and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305241

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      A novel core-sheath carbon nanostructured fiber is created with high tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and electrocatalytic activity. In particular, the designed ribbon-like nanostructure on the outer surface favors the attachment and impregnation of a second functional phase that is critical for electronic devices. As a demonstration, novel wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are produced with high energy conversion efficiencies up to 6.83%.

    4. Micropatterned Polymeric Nanosheets for Local Delivery of an Engineered Epithelial Monolayer (pages 1699–1705)

      Toshinori Fujie, Yoshihiro Mori, Shuntaro Ito, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Hojae Bae, Nobuhiro Nagai, Hideyuki Onami, Toshiaki Abe, Ali Khademhosseini and Hirokazu Kaji

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304183

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      Like a carpet for cells, micropatterned polymeric nanosheets are developed toward local cell delivery. The nanosheets direct morphogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and allow for the injection of an engineered RPE monolayer through syringe needles without the loss of cell viability. Such an ultrathin carrier has the promise of a minimally invasive delivery of cells into narrow tissue spaces.

    5. Stretchable Optoelectronic Circuits Embedded in a Polymer Network (pages 1706–1710)

      Dominic Ruh, Patrick Reith, Stanislav Sherman, Michael Theodor, Johannes Ruhhammer, Andreas Seifert and Hans Zappe

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304447

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      Stretchable optoelectronic circuits, incorporating chip-level LEDs and photodiodes in a silicone membrane, are demonstrated. Due to its highly miniaturized design and tissue-like mechanical properties, such an optical circuit can be conformally applied to the epidermis and be used for measurement of photoplethysmograms. This level of optical functionality in a stretchable substrate is potentially of great interest for personal health monitoring.

    6. Synergistic Prevention of Biofouling in Seawater Desalination by Zwitterionic Surfaces and Low-Level Chlorination (pages 1711–1718)

      Rong Yang, Hongchul Jang, Roman Stocker and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304386

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      Smooth, durable, ultrathin antifouling layers are deposited onto commercial reverse osmosis membranes without damaging them and they exhibit a fouling reduction. A new synergistic approach to antifouling, by coupling surface modification and drinking-water-level chlorination is enabled by the films' unique resistance against chlorine degradation. This approach substantially enhances longer-term fouling resistance compared with surface modification or chlorination alone, and can reduce freshwater production cost and its collateral toxicity to marine biota.

    7. Nanometer Resolution Self-Powered Static and Dynamic Motion Sensor Based on Micro-Grated Triboelectrification (pages 1719–1724)

      Yu Sheng Zhou, Guang Zhu, Simiao Niu, Ying Liu, Peng Bai, Qingsheng Jing and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304619

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      A one-dimensional displacement and speed sensing technology that consists of a pair of micro-grating structures and utilizes the coupling between the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction is demonstrated. Its distinct advantages, including being self-powered, high resolution, large dynamic range, and long detecting distance, show extensive potential applications in automation, manufacturing, process control, and portable devices.

    8. Guest-Cage Atomic Interactions in a Clathrate-Based Phase-Change Material (pages 1725–1730)

      Desmond Loke, Jonathan M. Skelton, Leong-Tat Law, Wei-Jie Wang, Ming-Hua Li, Wen-Dong Song, Tae-Hoon Lee and Stephen R. Elliott

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304199

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      New clathrate-based phase-change materials with cage-like structures incorporating Cs and Ba guest atoms, are reported as a means of altering crystallization and amorphization behavior by controlling ‘guest-cage’ interactions via intra-complex guest vibrational effects. Both a high resistance to spontaneous crystallization, and long retention of the amorphous phase are achieved, as well as a low melting energy. This approach provides a route for achieving cage-controlled semiconductor devices.

    9. Full Control and Manipulation of Heat Signatures: Cloaking, Camouflage and Thermal Metamaterials (pages 1731–1734)

      Tiancheng Han, Xue Bai, John T. L. Thong, Baowen Li and Cheng-Wei Qiu

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304448

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      Thermal camouflage and cloaking can transform an actual heat signature into a pre-controlled one. A viable recipe for controlling and manipulating heat signatures using thermal metamaterials to empower cloaking and camouflage in heat conduction is demonstrated. The thermal signature of the object is thus metamorphosed and perceived as multiple targets with different geometries and compositions, with the original object cloaked.

    10. Single-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Nanosheet-Assisted Assembly of Aggregation-Induced Emission Molecules to Form Organic Nanosheets with Enhanced Fluorescence (pages 1735–1739)

      Chaoliang Tan, Xiaoying Qi, Xiao Huang, Jian Yang, Bing Zheng, Zhongfu An, Runfeng Chen, Jun Wei, Ben Zhong Tang, Wei Huang and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304562

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      Single-layer transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets including MoS2, TiS2 and TaS2 can be used as novel platforms for the fluorescence enhancement of aggregation-induced emission fluorophores. The small organic AIE unit can be assembled into a two-dimensional sheet structure via a simple precipitation technique assisted by these monolayers. The resultant organic sheets possess a size of 0.2–2 μm and a thickness of 9–20 nm.

    11. Anisotropic Colloidal Templating of 3D Ceramic, Semiconducting, Metallic, and Polymeric Architectures (pages 1740–1745)

      Ming Fu, Kundan Chaudhary, Jonathan G. Lange, Ha Seong Kim, Jamie J. Juarez, Jennifer A. Lewis and Paul V. Braun

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304809

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      3D-porous anisotropic solids are fabricated by using horizontally and vertically aligned assemblies of silica rods with a length of ca. 2 μm and a diameter of 500 nm as templates. Templated materials include examples from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and polymers, Ni, Si, HfO2, and PMMA, respectively. By varying the infilling conditions, the detailed mesoscale structure and degree of anisotropy can be controlled.

    12. Powerful, Multifunctional Torsional Micromuscles Activated by Phase Transition (pages 1746–1750)

      Kai Liu, Chun Cheng, Joonki Suh, Robert Tang-Kong, Deyi Fu, Sangwook Lee, Jian Zhou, Leon O. Chua and Junqiao Wu

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304064

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      Micro bimorph coils driven by a metalinsulator phase transition in VO2 function as powerful torsional muscles. Reversible torsional motion over one million cycles without degradation is demonstrated, with a superior rotational speed up to ca. 200 000 rpm, an amplitude of 500° per mm length, and a power density up to ca. 39 kW kg−1.

    13. A Polymer Optoelectronic Interface Provides Visual Cues to a Blind Retina (pages 1751–1756)

      Vini Gautam, David Rand, Yael Hanein and K. S. Narayan

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304368

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      A polymer bulk heterojunction structure utilized as an active photosensitive platform to evoke neuronal activity in a blind retina. The features of the elicited action potentials correlate with the optoelectronic properties of the polymer/electrolyte interface, and resembles the natural response of the retina to light. The polymer interface can be used as an optoelectronic epiretinal interface for retinal prosthesis with no requirement for external power sources or connection cables.

    14. Photo-crosslinkable PEG-Based Microribbons for Forming 3D Macroporous Scaffolds with Decoupled Niche Properties (pages 1757–1762)

      Li-Hsin Han, Xinming Tong and Fan Yang

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304805

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      PEG-based microribbons are designed and fabricated as building blocks for constructing a 3D cell niche with independently tunable biochemical, mechanical, and topographical cues. This platform supports direct cell encapsulation, allows spatial patterning of biochemical cues, and may provide a valuable tool for facilitating the analyses of how interactive niche signaling regulates cell fate in three dimensions.

    15. Harnessing Localized Ridges for High-Aspect-Ratio Hierarchical Patterns with Dynamic Tunability and Multifunctionality (pages 1763–1770)

      Changyong Cao, Hon Fai Chan, Jianfeng Zang, Kam W. Leong and Xuanhe Zhao

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304589

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      A simple method for fabricating high-aspect-ratio, hierarchical, and dynamically tunable surface patterns is invented by harnessing localized-ridge instabilities in gold nanofilms coated on elastomer substrates (a); a theoretical model to calculate the critical parameters (e.g., wavelength and amplitude) for designing the new patterns is developed (b); and novel applications of the patterns as super-hydrophobic coatings (c) and biomimetic cell-culture substrates (d) capable of on-demand tunability are demonstrated.

    16. Dual-Scaled Porous Nitrocellulose Membranes with Underwater Superoleophobicity for Highly Efficient Oil/Water Separation (pages 1771–1775)

      Xuefei Gao, Li-Ping Xu, Zhongxin Xue, Lin Feng, Jitao Peng, Yongqiang Wen, Shutao Wang and Xueji Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304487

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      Large-area dual-scaled porous nitrocellulose (p-NC) membranes are fabricated by a facile, inexpensive and scalable perforating approach. These p-NC membranes show stable superhydrophilicity in air and underwater superoleophobicity. The p-NC membranes with intrinsic nanopores and array of microscale perforated pores could selectively and efficiently separate water from various oil/water mixtures with high efficiency (> 99%) rapidly.

    17. Controllable Co-segregation Synthesis of Wafer-Scale Hexagonal Boron Nitride Thin Films (pages 1776–1781)

      Chaohua Zhang, Lei Fu, Shuli Zhao, Yu Zhou, Hailin Peng and Zhongfan Liu

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304301

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      A facile and scalable co-segregation method is used to grow hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films from B- and N-containing metals. By annealing the sandwiched metal substrates in vacuum, sub-monolayer h-BN flakes, monolayer h-BN films, and multilayer h-BN thin films of varying thickness are successfully prepared. This approach follows an underneath-growth mode and exhibits good thickness- and location-control.

    18. Azobenzene-Derived Surfactants as Phototriggered Recyclable Templates for the Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (pages 1782–1787)

      Jing Wei, Yuyun Liu, Jia Chen, Yuhui Li, Qin Yue, Gaoxiang Pan, Yanlei Yu, Yonghui Deng and Dongyuan Zhao

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305104

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      An azobenzene-derived surfactant behaves as a “smart” molecule. Not only is it used as the structure-directing agent to synthesize unique mesoporous silica nanospheres, but it can also be quickly released from the silica framework with UV light and subsequently recycled.

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