Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 13

April 2, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 13

Pages 1949–2104

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Research News
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      Semiconductors: 25th Anniversary Article: Materials for High-Performance Biodegradable Semiconductor Devices (Adv. Mater. 13/2014) (page 1949)

      Suk-Won Hwang, Gayoung Park, Huanyu Cheng, Jun-Kyul Song, Seung-Kyun Kang, Lan Yin, Jae-Hwan Kim, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto, Yonggang Huang, Kyung-Mi Lee and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470082

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      The cover image shows a partially dissolved piece of silicon-based electronics built entirely using biologically and environmentally benign materials. This type of technology, sometimes referred to as transient electronics, offers potential applications in bioresorbable medical devices, ecofriendly electronics, environmental sensors, secure hardware systems, for example, and is reviewed by J. A. Rogers, K. M. Lee, and co-workers on page 1992.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
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    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Graphene: Highly Stretchable Piezoresistive Graphene–Nanocellulose Nanopaper for Strain Sensors (Adv. Mater. 13/2014) (page 1950)

      Chaoyi Yan, Jiangxin Wang, Wenbin Kang, Mengqi Cui, Xu Wang, Ce Yao Foo, Kenji Jianzhi Chee and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470083

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      A strategy based on graphene and nanocellulose is developed by P. S. Lee and co-workers on page 2022, for the fabrication of highly stretchable strain sensors for human-motion detection. The image shows the 3D macroporous structure of the composite film from intertwined nano cellulose fibrils and crumpled graphene. The stretchable sensors made from low-cost and solutionprocessable graphene and nano cellulose hold promising applications in emerging human-interactive devices.

  3. Back Cover

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      Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis of PbI2 Single-Layered Inorganic Nanotubes Encapsulated Within Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Mater. 13/2014) (page 2108)

      Laura Cabana, Belén Ballesteros, Eudar Batista, César Magén, Raúl Arenal, Judith Oró-Solé, Riccardo Rurali and Gerard Tobias

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470087

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      An individual layer of lead iodide (depicted in the lower part of the image) is seamlessly wrapped into a cylinder, resulting in the formation of a single-walled inorganic nanotube. To achive this, a solvent-free high-temperature route is employed using the inner cavities of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. This work is described by G. Tobias and co-workers on page 2016.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 13/2014)

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470085

  5. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 13/2014) (pages 1951–1957)

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470084

  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Carbon Nanotube- and Graphene-Based Transparent Conductive Films for Optoelectronic Devices (pages 1958–1991)

      Jinhong Du, Songfeng Pei, Laipeng Ma and Hui-Ming Cheng

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304135

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      The recent progress in the fabrication, properties, modification, patterning, and integration of carbon nanotube (CNT)- and graphene-based transparent conductive films (G-TCFs) for optoelectronic devices is comprehensively reviewed. Their key characteristics and advantages are compared. Despite many challenges and different applicability, CNT- and G-TCFs have demonstrated great potential in various flexible optoelectronic devices and have already been ready for some smart electronics.

    2. 25th Anniversary Article: Materials for High-Performance Biodegradable Semiconductor Devices (pages 1992–2000)

      Suk-Won Hwang, Gayoung Park, Huanyu Cheng, Jun-Kyul Song, Seung-Kyun Kang, Lan Yin, Jae-Hwan Kim, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto, Yonggang Huang, Kyung-Mi Lee and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304821

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      A brief review of recent progress and a description of new advances in materials for bioresorbable semiconductor devices capture the current status of a class of a technology known as transient electronics. A summary of options in materials and devices illustrates some of the possibilities. Studies of the kinetics of silicon hydrolysis in various aqueous solutions, taken together with toxicity tests on live animal models suggest potential for realistic use in biomedical implants and environmental monitors.

  7. Progress Reports

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    1. Nanocoating of Single Cells: From Maintenance of Cell Viability to Manipulation of Cellular Activities (pages 2001–2010)

      Ji Hun Park, Sung Ho Yang, Juno Lee, Eun Hyea Ko, Daewha Hong and Insung S. Choi

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304568

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      The chronological progresses in single-cell nanocoating are described. The historical developments in the field are divided into biotemplating, cytocompatible nanocoating, and cells in nano-nutshells, depending on the main research focuses. Each subfield is discussed in conjunction with the others, regarding how and why to manipulate living cells by nanocoating at the single-cell level.

  8. Communications

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    1. High-Resolution Observation of Nucleation and Growth Behavior of Nanomaterials Using a Graphene Template (pages 2011–2015)

      Janghyun Jo, Hyobin Yoo, Suk-In Park, Jun Beom Park, Sangmoon Yoon, Miyoung Kim and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304720

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      By using graphene as an electron beam-transparent substrate for both nanomaterial growth and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, we investigate initial growth behavior of nanomaterials. The direct growth and imaging method using graphene facilitate atomic-resolution imaging of nanomaterials at the very early stage of growth. This enables the observation of the transition in crystal structure of ZnO nuclei and the formation of various defects during nanomaterial growth.

    2. Synthesis of PbI2 Single-Layered Inorganic Nanotubes Encapsulated Within Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2016–2021)

      Laura Cabana, Belén Ballesteros, Eudar Batista, César Magén, Raúl Arenal, Judith Oró-Solé, Riccardo Rurali and Gerard Tobias

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305169

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      The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host. This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures.

    3. Highly Stretchable Piezoresistive Graphene–Nanocellulose Nanopaper for Strain Sensors (pages 2022–2027)

      Chaoyi Yan, Jiangxin Wang, Wenbin Kang, Mengqi Cui, Xu Wang, Ce Yao Foo, Kenji Jianzhi Chee and Pooi See Lee

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304742

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      Highly stretchable graphene–nanocellulose composite nanopaper is fabricated for strain-sensor applications. Three-dimensional macroporous nanopaper from crumpled graphene and nanocellulose is embedded in elastomer matrix to achieve stretchability up to 100%. The stretchable graphene nanopaper is demonstrated for efficient human-motion detection applications.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Research News
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      Functional Surfaces: Biologically Inspired Omniphobic Surfaces by Reverse Imprint Lithography (Adv. Mater. 13/2014) (page 2028)

      René Hensel, Andreas Finn, Ralf Helbig, Hans-Georg Braun, Christoph Neinhuis, Wolf-Joachim Fischer and Carsten Werner

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470086

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      A springtail skin morphology is translated into omniphobic polymer membranes by reverse imprint lithography, as described by C. Werner and co-workers on page 2029. The characteristic overhanging structures are arranged in a selfsupporting comblike pattern which provides mechanical stability.

  10. Communications

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    1. Biologically Inspired Omniphobic Surfaces by Reverse Imprint Lithography (pages 2029–2033)

      René Hensel, Andreas Finn, Ralf Helbig, Hans-Georg Braun, Christoph Neinhuis, Wolf-Joachim Fischer and Carsten Werner

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305408

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      Springtail skin morphology is translated into robust omniphobic polymer membranes by reverse imprint lithography. The combination of overhanging cross-sections and their arrangement in a self-supporting comblike pattern are crucial for mechanically stable coatings that can be even applied to curved surfaces.

    2. Global and Local Superconductivity in Boron-Doped Granular Diamond (pages 2034–2040)

      Gufei Zhang, Stuart Turner, Evgeny A. Ekimov, Johan Vanacken, Matias Timmermans, Tomás Samuely, Vladimir A. Sidorov, Sergei M. Stishov, Yinggang Lu, Bart Deloof, Bart Goderis, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Joris Van de Vondel and and Victor V. Moshchalkov

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304667

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      Strong granularity-correlated and intragrain modulations of the superconducting order parameter are demonstrated in heavily boron-doped diamond situated not yet in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. These modulations at the superconducting state (SC) and at the global normal state (NS) above the resistive superconducting transition, reveal that local Cooper pairing sets in prior to the global phase coherence.

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      Perovskite-Based Hybrid Solar Cells Exceeding 10% Efficiency with High Reproducibility Using a Thin Film Sandwich Approach (pages 2041–2046)

      Bert Conings, Linny Baeten, Christopher De Dobbelaere, Jan D'Haen, Jean Manca and Hans-Gerd Boyen

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304803

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      Organometal halide perovskites have tremendous potential as light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. In this work we demonstrate hybrid solar cells based on the mixed perovskite CH3NH3PbI2Cl in a thin film sandwich structure, with unprecedented reproducibility and generating efficiencies up to 10.8%. The successfulness of our approach is corroborated by the experimental electronic structure determination of this perovskite.

    4. Hydrogenated Uniform Pt Clusters Supported on Porous CaMnO3 as a Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction and Evolution (pages 2047–2051)

      Xiaopeng Han, Fangyi Cheng, Tianran Zhang, Jingang Yang, Yuxiang Hu and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304867

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      Hydrogenated uniform Pt clusters supported on porous CaMnO3 nanocomposites are synthesized and investigated as a new electrocatalytic material for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Due to the synergistic effect of Pt and CaMnO3, the nanocomposites exhibit superior activity and durability to the benchmark Pt/C catalyst.

    5. Synthesis of a Covalent Monolayer Sheet by Photochemical Anthracene Dimerization at the Air/Water Interface and its Mechanical Characterization by AFM Indentation (pages 2052–2058)

      Payam Payamyar, Khaled Kaja, Carlos Ruiz-Vargas, Andreas Stemmer, Daniel J. Murray, Carey J. Johnson, Benjamin T. King, Florian Schiffmann, Joost VandeVondele, Alois Renn, Stephan Götzinger, Paola Ceroni, Andri Schütz, Lay-Theng Lee, Zhikun Zheng, Junji Sakamoto and A. Dieter Schlüter

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304705

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      Covalent monolayer sheets in 2 hours: spreading of threefold anthracene-equipped shape-persistent and amphiphilic monomers at the air/water interface followed by a short photochemical treatment provides access to infinitely sized, strictly monolayered, covalent sheets with in-plane elastic modulus in the range of 19 N/m.

    6. Flexible Supercapacitor Made of Carbon Nanotube Yarn with Internal Pores (pages 2059–2065)

      Changsoon Choi, Jae Ah Lee, A Young Choi, Youn Tae Kim, Xavier Lepró, Marcio D. Lima, Ray H. Baughman and Seon Jeong Kim

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304736

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      Electrochemical deposition of MnO2 onto carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn gives a high-performance, flexible yarn supercapacitor. The hybrid yarn's blended structure, resulting from trapping of MnO2 in its internal pores, effectively enlarges electrochemical area and reduces charge diffusion length. Accordingly, the yarn supercapacitor exhibits high values of capacitance, energy density, and average power density. Applications in wearable electronics can be envisaged.

    7. An Electric-Field-Responsive Discotic Liquid-Crystalline Hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene/Oligothiophene Hybrid (pages 2066–2071)

      Nan Hu, Renfan Shao, Yongqiang Shen, Dong Chen, Noel A. Clark and David M. Walba

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304371

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      A novel hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid is shown to self-assemble into a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline phase, and respond to applied electric fields resulting in uniform homeotropic or parallel alignment depending upon the electrode structure. Furthermore, the columnar orientation can be maintained even after removal of the electric field unless the material is heated above the clearing temperature.

    8. A Multistimuli-Responsive Photochromic Metal-Organic Gel (pages 2072–2077)

      Shi-Chao Wei, Mei Pan, , Kang Li, Sujuan Wang, Jianyong Zhang and Cheng-Yong Su

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304404

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      A photochromic metal-organic gel with thermo-, photo-, and anion-responsive behavior is obtained. Unusually, heating of the Al–ligand solution leads to gel formation and cooling to room temperature reverses the process to reform the solution. The gel is sensitive to weakly coordinating anions. Additionally, reversible photochromic transformations take place both in the solution and gel states, accompanied by reversibly switched luminescence.

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      Hybrid Graphene-Metal Oxide Solution Processed Electron Transport Layers for Large Area High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics (pages 2078–2083)

      Michail J. Beliatis, Keyur K. Gandhi, Lynn J. Rozanski, Rhys Rhodes, Liam McCafferty, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Abdullah S. Alshammari, Christopher A. Mills, K. D. G. Imalka Jayawardena, Simon J. Henley and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304780

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      Solution processed core–shell nano-structures of metal oxide-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are used as improved electron transport layers (ETL), leading to an enhancement in photocurrent charge transport in PCDTBT:PC70BM for both single cell and module photovoltaic devices. As a result, the power conversion efficiency for the devices with RGO-metal oxides for ETL increases 8% in single cells and 20% in module devices.

    10. Facile Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Quantum-Dot/Graphene-Nanosheet Composites with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2084–2088)

      Runwei Mo, Zhengyu Lei, Kening Sun and David Rooney

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304338

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      A facile method to synthesize well-dispersed TiO2 quantum dots on graphene nanosheets (TiO2-QDs/GNs) in a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion system is reported. The TiO2/graphene composites display high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), such as having high reversible lithium storage capacity, high Coulombic efficiency, excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance and special structure of the composites thus offer a way to prepare novel graphene-based electrode materials for high-energy-density and high-power LIBs.

    11. An Easy and Effective Method to Modulate Molecular Energy Level of the Polymer Based on Benzodithiophene for the Application in Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2089–2095)

      Maojie Zhang, Xia Guo, Wei Ma, Shaoqing Zhang, Lijun Huo, Harald Ade and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304631

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      Attaching meta-alkoxy-phenyl groups as conjugated side chains is an easy and effective way to modulate the molecular energy level of D-A polymer for photovoltaic application, and the polymer solar cells based on the polymer consisting meta-alkoxy-phenyl groups as conjugated side chain, PBT-OP, shows an enhanced open circuit voltage and thus higher efficiency of 7.50%, under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2.

    12. Two-Dimensional Si Nanosheets with Local Hexagonal Structure on a MoS2 Surface (pages 2096–2101)

      Daniele Chiappe, Emilio Scalise, Eugenio Cinquanta, Carlo Grazianetti, Bas van den Broek, Marco Fanciulli, Michel Houssa and Alessandro Molle

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304783

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      The structural and electronic properties of a Si nanosheet (NS) grown onto a MoS2 substrate by means of molecular beam epitaxy are assessed. Epitaxially grown Si is shown to adapt to the trigonal prismatic surface lattice of MoS2 by forming two-dimensional nanodomains. The Si layer structure is distinguished from the underlying MoS2 surface structure. The local electronic properties of the Si nanosheet are dictated by the atomistic arrangement of the layer and unlike the MoS2 hosting substrate they are qualified by a gap-less density of states.

  11. Research News

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Research News
    1. Novel Meso-Superstructured Solar Cells with a High Efficiency Exceeding 12% (pages 2102–2104)

      Yun Hang Hu

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304732

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      The application of a mesostructured insulating Al2O3 scaffold, upon which extremely thin films of a n-type organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and a p-type organic semiconductor are coated, creates a novel meso-superstructured solar cell (MSSC) with a high power conversion efficiency over 12%. In the MSSC, the perovskite functions both a light absorber and an electron-transporter.

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