Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 19

May 21, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 19

Pages 2965–3161

  1. Cover Picture

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      Stretchable Electrodes: Negatively Strain-Dependent Electrical Resistance of Magnetically Arranged Nickel Composites: Application to Highly Stretchable Electrodes and Stretchable Lighting Devices (Adv. Mater. 19/2014) (page 2965)

      Sangwoo Kim, Junghwan Byun, Seongdae Choi, Donghyun Kim, Taehoon Kim, Seungjun Chung and Yongtaek Hong

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470123

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      On page 3094, Y. Hong and co-workers develop a key enabling technology for stretchable displays sustaining their original pixel resolution even when stretched by using ferromagnetic conductive nickel composite electrodes and a hidden pixel structure. The hidden pixels connected via the composite electrodes are turned on under the tensile strain, thus sustaining the original pixel resolution due to the negatively strain-dependent electrical resistance of the composite electrode.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Bioprinting: 3D Bioprinting of Vascularized, Heterogeneous Cell-Laden Tissue Constructs (Adv. Mater. 19/2014) (page 2966)

      David B. Kolesky, Ryan L. Truby, A. Sydney Gladman, Travis A. Busbee, Kimberly A. Homan and Jennifer A. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470124

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      J. A. Lewis and co-workers report on page 3124 a new bio-printing method for fabricating 3D tissue constructs replete with vasculature, multiple types of cells, and extracellular matrix. These intricate, heterogeneous structures are created by precisely co-printing multiple materials, known as bio-inks, in three dimensions. These 3D microengineered environments open new avenues for drug screening and tissue engineering. Cover image by Helena Sue Martin, David Kolesky, and Jennifer Lewis (Harvard University).

  3. Inside Back Cover

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      Organic Electronics: Towards Colorless Transparent Organic Transistors: Potential of Benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-Based Wide-Gap Semiconductors (Adv. Mater. 19/2014) (page 3163)

      Hanul Moon, Hyunsu Cho, Mincheol Kim, Kazuo Takimiya and Seunghyup Yoo

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470128

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      Transparent organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer great potential as building blocks for invisible/seethrough electronic devices, which are promising for futuristic applications, such as augmented reality and interactive human interfaces. On page 3105, S. Yoo and co-workers provide a systematic strategy to fabricate fully transparent, colorless OTFTs using metal-based multilayer transparent electrodes and organic semiconductors of a benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene derivative, which have recently attracted great attention as a high-mobility channel material.

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      Carbon Nanotube Networks: Nano-Engineering of SWNT Networks for Enhanced Charge Transport at Ultralow Nanotube Loading (Adv. Mater. 19/2014) (page 3164)

      David R. Barbero, Nicolas Boulanger, Madeleine Ramstedt and Junchun Yu

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470129

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      Arrays of nano-engineered carbon nanotube networks embedded in nanoscale polymer structures enable highly efficient charge transport as demonstrated by D. R. Barbero and co-workers on page 3111. An increase in charge transport by several orders of magnitude is recorded at low nanotube loading compared to traditional random networks in either insulating (polystyrene) or semiconducting (polythiophene) polymers. These novel networks are expected to enhance the performance of next generation hybrid and carbon based photovoltaic devices.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 19/2014)

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470126

  6. Contents

    1. Top of page
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  7. Communications

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    1. Graphite/Silicon Hybrid Electrodes using a 3D Current Collector for Flexible Batteries (pages 2977–2982)

      Sang Woo Kim, Jin Ho Yun, Bongki Son, Young-Gi Lee, Kwang Man Kim, Yong Min Lee and Kuk Young Cho

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305600

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      A flexible hybrid anode from graphite and thin film silicon is realized by the concept of a 3D sandwich current collector by the combination of micro-contact printing and RF magnetron sputtering. Flexible lithium-ion batteries with a new hybrid anode demonstrate not only enhanced specific capacity but also improved rate capability compared to that of a conventional graphite anode under bending deformation.

    2. Split-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors for High-Speed Operation (pages 2983–2988)

      T. Uemura, T. Matsumoto, K. Miyake, M. Uno, S. Ohnishi, T. Kato, M. Katayama, S. Shinamura, M. Hamada, M.-J. Kang, K. Takimiya, C. Mitsui, T. Okamoto and J. Takeya

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304976

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      Split-gate organic field-effect transistors have been developed for high-speed operation. Owing to the combination of reduced contact resistance and minimized parasitic capacitance, the devices have fast switching characteristics. The cutoff frequencies for the vacuum-evaporated devices and the solution-processed devices are 20 and 10 MHz, respectively. A speed of 10 MHz is the fastest device reported so far among solution-processed organic transistors.

    3. Ratiometric MRI Sensors Based on Core–Shell Nanoparticles for Quantitative pH Imaging (pages 2989–2992)

      Satoshi Okada, Shin Mizukami, Takao Sakata, Yutaka Matsumura, Yoshichika Yoshioka and Kazuya Kikuchi

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305018

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      Ratiometric MRI sensors consist of paramagnetic cores and pH-sensitive polymer shells. The core–shell nanostructure enables the coexistence of two incompatible NMR relaxation properties in one particle. The sensors show pH sensitivity in transverse relaxivity (r2), but not in longitudinal relaxivity (r1). Quantitative pH imaging is achieved by measuring the r2/r1 value with a clinical 3 T MRI scanner.

    4. High-Mobility Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated with Macroscopic Aligned Semiconducting Polymers (pages 2993–2998)

      Hsin-Rong Tseng, Hung Phan, Chan Luo, Ming Wang, Louis A. Perez, Shrayesh N. Patel, Lei Ying, Edward J. Kramer, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Guillermo C. Bazan and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305084

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      A record high OFET hole mobility, as high as 23.7 cm2/Vs, is achieved in macroscopic aligned semiconducting polymers. The high mobility is insensitive to the polymer molecular weight. Polymer chains are aligned along the fiber to facilitate intrachain charge transport.

    5. Nanometer Scale Alignment of Block-Copolymer Domains by Means of a Scanning Probe Tip (pages 2999–3002)

      Jonathan R. Felts, M. Serdar Onses, John A. Rogers and William P. King

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305481

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      Alignment of perpendicularly oriented lamellar block copolymer domains using an AFM tip is demonstrated. The AFM tip orients the domains through local shearing, resulting in domain alignment parallel to tip travel. AFM tips can also deposit block copolymer nanostructures on heated substrates with a variety of experimentally observed domain alignments.

    6. Microfluidic-Based Generation of Size-Controlled, Biofunctionalized Synthetic Polymer Microgels for Cell Encapsulation (pages 3003–3008)

      Devon M. Headen, Guillaume Aubry, Hang Lu and Andrés J. García

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304880

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      Cell and islet microencapsulation in synthetic hydrogels provides an immunoprotective and cell-supportive microenvironment. A microfluidic strategy for the genaration of biofunctionalized, synthetic microgel particles with precise control over particle size and molecular permeability for cell and protein delivery is presented. These engineered capsules support high cell viability and function of encapsulated human stem cells and islets.

    7. Macroscopic Supramolecular Assembly of Rigid Building Blocks Through a Flexible Spacing Coating (pages 3009–3013)

      Mengjiao Cheng, Feng Shi, Jianshu Li, Zaifu Lin, Chao Jiang, Meng Xiao, Liqun Zhang, Wantai Yang and Toshio Nishi

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305177

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      Macroscopic supramolecular assembly is a promising method for manufacturing macroscopic, ordered structures for tissue-engineering scaffolds. A flexible spacing coating is shown to overcome undesired surface and size effects and to enable assembly of macroscopic cubes with host/guest groups. The assembled pairs disassembled upon introduction of competitive guest molecules, thereby demonstrating a multivalent assembly mechanism.

    8. New Infrared Transmitting Material via Inverse Vulcanization of Elemental Sulfur to Prepare High Refractive Index Polymers (pages 3014–3018)

      Jared J. Griebel, Soha Namnabat, Eui Tae Kim, Roland Himmelhuber, Dominic H. Moronta, Woo Jin Chung, Adam G. Simmonds, Kyung-Jo Kim, John van der Laan, Ngoc A. Nguyen, Eustace L. Dereniak, Michael E. Mackay, Kookheon Char, Richard S. Glass, Robert A. Norwood and Jeffrey Pyun

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305607

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      Polymers for IR imaging: The preparation of high refractive index polymers (n = 1.75 to 1.86) via the inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur is reported. High quality imaging in the near (1.5 μm) and mid-IR (3–5 μm) regions using high refractive index polymeric lenses from these sulfur materials was demonstrated.

    9. Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays (pages 3019–3023)

      Youngbin Tchoe, Janghyun Jo, Miyoung Kim, Jaehyuk Heo, Geonwook Yoo, Cheolsoo Sone and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305684

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      Microdonut-shaped GaN/InxGa1−xN light-emitting diode (LED) microarrays are fabricated for variable-color emitters. The figure shows clearly donut-shaped light emission from all the individual microdonut LEDs. Furthermore, microdonut LEDs exhibit spatially-resolved blue and green EL colors, which can be tuned by either controlling the external bias voltage or changing the size of the microdonut LED.

    10. Macromolecular Crowding Meets Tissue Engineering by Self-Assembly: A Paradigm Shift in Regenerative Medicine (pages 3024–3034)

      Abhigyan Satyam, Pramod Kumar, Xingliang Fan, Alexander Gorelov, Yury Rochev, Lokesh Joshi, Héctor Peinado, David Lyden, Benjamin Thomas, Brian Rodriguez, Michael Raghunath, Abhay Pandit and Dimitrios Zeugolis

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304428

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      MMC, the addition of inert polydispersed macromolecules in the culture media, effectively emulates the dense in vivo extracellular space, resulting in amplified deposition of ECM in vitro and subsequent production of cohesive, ECM-rich living substitutes.

    11. Maximizing Integrated Optical and Electrical Properties of a Single ZnO Nanowire through Native Interfacial Doping (pages 3035–3041)

      Huaiyi Ding, Nan Pan, Chao Ma, Yukun Wu, Junwen Li, Hongbing Cai, Kun Zhang, Guanghui Zhang, Wenzhen Ren, Jianqi Li, Yi Luo, Xiaoping Wang and J. G. Hou

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305340

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      A native interfacial doping layer introduced in core–shell type ZnO nano­wires by a simple vapor phase re-growth procedure endows the produced nano­wires with both excellent electrical and optical performances compared to conventional homogeneous ZnO nanowires. The unique Zn-rich interfacial structure in the core–shell nanowires plays a crucial role in the outstanding performances.

    12. Interconnection of Nanoparticles within 2D Superlattices of PbS/Oleic Acid Thin Films (pages 3042–3049)

      Paul Simon, Lydia Bahrig, Igor A. Baburin, Petr Formanek, Falk Röder, Jan Sickmann, Stephen G. Hickey, Alexander Eychmüller, Hannes Lichte, Rüdiger Kniep and Elena Rosseeva

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305667

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      Make it connected! 2D close-packed layers of inorganic nanoparticles are interconnected by organic fibrils of oleic acid as clearly visualized by electron holography. These fibrils can be mineralised by PbS to transform an organic-inorganic framework to a completely interconnected inorganic semiconducting 2D array.

    13. Enzymatic Polymerization of High Molecular Weight DNA Amphiphiles That Self-Assemble into Star-Like Micelles (pages 3050–3054)

      Lei Tang, Vinalia Tjong, Nan Li, Yaroslava G. Yingling, Ashutosh Chilkoti and Stefan Zauscher

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201306049

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      High molecular weight ssDNA amphiphiles are synthesized by enzymatic polymerization. These highly asymmetric diblock DNA copolymers self-assemble into “hairy”, star-like micelles, shown in the AFM image and the DPD snapshot.

    14. Graphene Nanoplatelets Doped with N at its Edges as Metal-Free Cathodes for Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 3055–3062)

      Myung Jong Ju, In-Yup Jeon, Jae Cheon Kim, Kimin Lim, Hyun-Jung Choi, Sun-Min Jung, In Taek Choi, Yu Kyung Eom, Young Jin Kwon, Jaejung Ko, Jae-Joon Lee, Hwan Kyu Kim and Jong-Beom Baek

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304986

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      Challenging precious Pt-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), graphene nanoplatelets that are N-doped at the edges (NGnPs) are prepared via simply ball-milling graphite in the presence of nitrogen gas. DSSCs based on specific nanoplatelets designated “NGnP5” display superior photovoltaic performance (power conversion efficiency, 10.27%) compared to that of conventional Pt-based devices (9.96%). More importantly, the NGnP counter electrode exhibits outstanding electrochemical stability and electrocatalytic activity with a cobalt-complex redox couple.

    15. Templated Self-Assembly of Functional Oxide Nanocomposites (pages 3063–3067)

      Nicolas M. Aimon, Hong Kyoon Choi, Xue Yin Sun, Dong Hun Kim and Caroline A. Ross

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305459

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      In perovskite/spinel self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, the substrate surface plays a dominant role in determining the final morphology. Topgraphic features, such as pits and trenches, are written in the substrate using either Focused Ion Beam or wet etching through a block co-polymer mask. These features are effective at templating the self-assembly, resulting in a wide range of attainable nano-assemblies.

    16. Universal Formation of Compositionally Graded Bulk Heterojunction for Efficiency Enhancement in Organic Photovoltaics (pages 3068–3075)

      Zhengguo Xiao, Yongbo Yuan, Bin Yang, Jeremy VanDerslice, Jihua Chen, Ondrej Dyck, Gerd Duscher and Jinsong Huang

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305196

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      A universal method is reported to form graded bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) by a simple solvent-fluxing process. Donors are enriched at the anode and acceptors are enriched at cathode side, matching the gradient electron and hole current across the film. Efficiency enhancements by 15–50% are achieved for all BHJ systems tested compared with the optimized regular BHJ OPVs.

    17. Thin Films with Ultra-low Thermal Expansion (pages 3076–3080)

      Namiko Yamamoto, Eleftherios Gdoutos, Risaku Toda, Victor White, Harish Manohara and Chiara Daraio

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304997

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      Ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is an elusive property, and narrow temperature ranges of operation and poor mechanical properties limit the use of conventional materials with low CTE. We structured a periodic micro-array of bi-metallic cells to demonstrate ultra-low effective CTE with a wide temperature range. These engineered tunable CTE thin film can be applied to minimize thermal fatigue and failure of optics, semiconductors, biomedical sensors, and solar energy applications.

    18. Graphene Coupled Schiff-base Porous Polymers: Towards Nitrogen-enriched Porous Carbon Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Electrochemical Capacity (pages 3081–3086)

      Xiaodong Zhuang, Fan Zhang, Dongqing Wu and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305040

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      Schiff-base type porous polymer sheets with ultrahigh nitrogen content have been successfully synthesized by utilizing aminated graphene oxide as a 2D structure-directing template via dynamic covalent chemistry. Nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanosheets were thus prepared by thermal pyrolysis of the 2D porous polymers, showing exceptionally high capacitance up to 424 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 in 6 m KOH, superior to that of porous carbons without graphene involved.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Photodetectors: Flexible Ultraviolet Photodetectors with Broad Photoresponse Based on Branched ZnS-ZnO Heterostructure Nanofilms (Adv. Mater. 19/2014) (page 3087)

      Wei Tian, Chao Zhang, Tianyou Zhai, Song-Lin Li, Xi Wang, Jiangwei Liu, Xiao Jie, Dequan Liu, Meiyong Liao, Yasuo Koide, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470127

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      A branched architecture with ZnS backbones and ZnO branches is prepared by combining a facile thermal evaporation process and a hydrothermal growth. The application of nanofilm networks made of branched ZnSZnO nanostructures as a flexible UV photodetector is demonstrated by J. Liu, X. Wang, W. Tian, and co-workers on page 3088. The fabricated devices show excellent operational characteristics: tunable spectral selectivity, widerange photoresponse, fast response speed, and excellent environmental stability.

  9. Communications

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    1. Flexible Ultraviolet Photodetectors with Broad Photoresponse Based on Branched ZnS-ZnO Heterostructure Nanofilms (pages 3088–3093)

      Wei Tian, Chao Zhang, Tianyou Zhai, Song-Lin Li, Xi Wang, Jiangwei Liu, Xiao Jie, Dequan Liu, Meiyong Liao, Yasuo Koide, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305457

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      The application of nanofilm networks made of branched ZnS-ZnO nanostructures as a flexible UV photodetector is demonstrated. The fabricated devices show excellent operational characteristics: tunable spectral selectivity, widerange photoresponse, fast response speed, and excellent environmental stability.

    2. Negatively Strain-Dependent Electrical Resistance of Magnetically Arranged Nickel Composites: Application to Highly Stretchable Electrodes and Stretchable Lighting Devices (pages 3094–3099)

      Sangwoo Kim, Junghwan Byun, Seongdae Choi, Donghyun Kim, Taehoon Kim, Seungjun Chung and Yongtaek Hong

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304686

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      A novel property of the negatively strain-dependent electrical resistance change of nickel conductive composites is presented. The composite shows negatively strain-dependent resistance change when magnetically arranged, while most conductive materials show opposite behavior. This negative dependency is utilized to produce highly stretchable electrodes and to demonstrate a new conceptual resolution-sustainable stretchable lighting/display device.

    3. Nanoporous Metal Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide for High-Efficiency Hydrogen Production (pages 3100–3104)

      Xingbo Ge, Luyang Chen, Ling Zhang, Yuren Wen, Akihiko Hirata and Mingwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305678

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      We fabricated a robust electrocatalyst by chemically depositing an ultrathin layer of amorphous molybdenum sulfide on the internal surface of dealloyed nanoporous gold. The catalyst exhibits superior electrocatalysis toward hydrogen evolution reaction in both acidic and neutral media with 2–6 times improvement in catalytic activies compared to other molybdenum sulfide based materials.

    4. Towards Colorless Transparent Organic Transistors: Potential of Benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-Based Wide-Gap Semiconductors (pages 3105–3110)

      Hanul Moon, Hyunsu Cho, Mincheol Kim, Kazuo Takimiya and Seunghyup Yoo

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305440

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      Colorless, highly transparent organic thin-film transistors (TOTFTs) with high performance are realized based on benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives that simultaneously exhibit a wide energy gap and high transport properties. Multilayer transparent source/drain electrodes maintain the transparency, and ultrathin fluoropolymer dielectric layers enable stable, low-voltage operation of the proposed TOTFTs.

    5. Nano-Engineering of SWNT Networks for Enhanced Charge Transport at Ultralow Nanotube Loading (pages 3111–3117)

      David R. Barbero, Nicolas Boulanger, Madeleine Ramstedt and Junchun Yu

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305843

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      We demonstrate a simple and controllable method to form periodic arrays of highly conductive nano-engineered single wall carbon nanotube networks from solution. These networks increase the conductivity of a polymer composite by as much as eight orders of magnitude compared to a traditional random network. These nano-engineered networks are demonstrated in both polystyrene and polythiophene polymers.

    6. Microfluidic-Assisted Self-Assembly of Complex Dendritic Polyethylene Drug Delivery Nanocapsules (pages 3118–3123)

      Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Vahid Karimkhani, Fatemeh Sadat Majedi, Jules John Van Dersarl, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Faramarz Afshar-Taromi, Hamid Mirzadeh, Arnaud Bertsch, Karl I. Jacob, Philippe Renaud, Florian J. Stadler and Il Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305753

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      Microfluidic platform for the synthesis of complex nanocapsules is presented via a controlled self-assembly. The monodisperse nanocapsules in the range of 50–200 nm consist of a dendritic polyethylene core and a Pluronic copolymer shell. The resultant nanocarriers encapsulate large amount of hydrophobic anticancer drug like paclitaxel while providing a low complement activation as well as sustained release profile with high tunability.

    7. 3D Bioprinting of Vascularized, Heterogeneous Cell-Laden Tissue Constructs (pages 3124–3130)

      David B. Kolesky, Ryan L. Truby, A. Sydney Gladman, Travis A. Busbee, Kimberly A. Homan and Jennifer A. Lewis

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305506

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      A new bioprinting method is reported for fabricating 3D tissue constructs replete with vasculature, multiple types of cells, and extracellular matrix. These intricate, heterogeneous structures are created by precisely co-printing multiple materials, known as bioinks, in three dimensions. These 3D micro-engineered environments open new ­avenues for drug screening and fundamental studies of wound healing, angiogenesis, and stem-cell niches.

    8. Grooved Organogel Surfaces towards Anisotropic Sliding of Water Droplets (pages 3131–3135)

      Pengchao Zhang, Hongliang Liu, Jingxin Meng, Gao Yang, Xueli Liu, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305914

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      Periodic micro-grooved organogel surfaces can easily realize the anisotropic sliding of water droplets attributing to the formed slippery water/oil/solid interface. Different from the existing anisotropic surfaces, this novel surface provides a versatile candidate for the anisotropic sliding of water droplets and might present a promising way for the easy manipulation of liquid droplets for water collection, liquid-directional transportation, and microfluidics.

    9. Optical Waveguide Based on a Polarized Polydiacetylene Microtube (pages 3136–3141)

      Wenlong Hu, Yikai Chen, Hao Jiang, Jingguo Li, Gang Zou, Qijin Zhang, Douguo Zhang, Pei Wang and Hai Ming

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305712

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      An optical waveguide based on a PDA microtube has been prepared through a novel hierarchical assembly method. The waveguide performance of the PDA microtube can be easily modulated upon external stimuli. The polarization of the out-coupled emission light seems independent of the propagation distance, which should be ascribed to the ordered alignment of PDA chains in the microtube.

    10. Elucidating Double Aggregation Mechanisms in the Morphology Optimization of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Narrow Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells (pages 3142–3147)

      Jing Gao, Wei Chen, Letian Dou, Chun-Chao Chen, Wei-Hsuan Chang, Yongsheng Liu, Gang Li and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305645

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      The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a DPP-based polymer solar cell is significantly improved by using DIO or DCB as processing additives. The discovery that DCB outperforms DIO with a significantly wider solvent mixture operation window suggests different optimization mechanisms. Although both solvent mixture systems involve double aggregation processes, including a similar solution-to-film aggregation, however, two distinct solution-stage aggregations are observed: relatively amorphous polymer aggregates form in the CF-DIO solution, while more crystalline polymer aggregates form in CF-DCB solution.

    11. Oxygen-Deficient Hematite Nanorods as High-Performance and Novel Negative Electrodes for Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors (pages 3148–3155)

      Xihong Lu, Yinxiang Zeng, Minghao Yu, Teng Zhai, Chaolun Liang, Shilei Xie, Muhammad-Sadeeq Balogun and Yexiang Tong

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305851

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      Oxygen-deficient α-Fe2O3 nanorods with outstanding capacitive performance are developed and demonstrated as novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The asymmetric-supercapacitor device based on the oxygen-deficient α-Fe2O3 nanorod negative electrode and a MnO2 positive electrode achieves a maximum energy density of 0.41 mW·h/cm3; it is also capable of charging a mobile phone and powering a light-emitting diode indicator.

    12. A Facile and General Approach for the Direct Fabrication of 3D, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array/Transition Metal Oxide Composites as Non-Pt Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reactions (pages 3156–3161)

      Zhi Yang, Xuemei Zhou, Zhiping Jin, Zheng Liu, Huagui Nie, Xi'an Chen and Shaoming Huang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305513

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      A simple and effective strategy involving nebulized ethanol assisted infiltration for the general synthesis of 3D structure-based vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTs) uniformly and deeply decorated with various transition-metal oxide (MOs) has been developed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the 3D structure-based VACNTs with decorated MnO2 can exhibit superior electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity, long-term stability, and an excellent resistance to crossover effects compared to the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

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