Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 2

January 15, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 2

Pages 193–345

  1. Cover Picture

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    10. Communications
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      Microcapsules: Thermally Stable Autonomic Healing in Epoxy using a Dual-Microcapsule System (Adv. Mater. 2/2014) (page 193)

      Henghua Jin, Chris L. Mangun, Anthony S. Griffin, Jeffrey S. Moore, Nancy R. Sottos and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470006

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      Hollow poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsules are vacuum infiltrated with a reactive amine curing agent. They are used in dual capsule epoxy-amine healing chemistry to produce thermally stable self-healing epoxy polymers by Scott R. White and co-workers on page 282. Autonomic healing in excess of 90% is achieved in a high Tg (152–213 °C) structural polymer cured at high temperature (121–177 °C).

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Organic Field-Effect Transistors: Critical Factors to Achieve Low Voltage- and Capacitance-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 2/2014) (page 194)

      Mi Jang, Ji Hoon Park, Seongil Im, Se Hyun Kim and Hoichang Yang

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470007

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      Organic Field-Effect Transistors On page 288, Hoichang Yang, Se Hyun Kim, and co-workers demonstrate low-voltage-operated high-performance triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (TES-ADT)-based organic field-effect transistors by introducing simple and facile solution-processed interface engineering to lowcapacitance dielectrics, yielding surface-mediated layer-like crystals of TES-ADT with more-efficient charge transport, in comparison with the intrinsically multigrain structures of pentacene crystals.

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      Domain Walls: Ferroelectric Domain Wall Injection (Adv. Mater. 2/2014) (page 348)

      Jonathan R. Whyte, Raymond G. P. McQuaid, Pankaj Sharma, Carlota Canalias, James F. Scott, Alexei Gruverman and J. Marty Gregg

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470011

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      Ferroelectric domain wall injection is depicted through a scanning electron microscopy image of a ferroelectric capacitor with four focusedion-beam-milled triangular holes. J. Marty Gregg and co-workers show on page 293 that the holes induce electric field heterogeneity into the capacitor, represented by the colour gradient, to create localized field hotspots. Here, domain walls would be injected into the ferroelectric, illustrated by the cover image's central feature.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 2/2014)

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470009

  5. Contents

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  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Polymer–Particle Composites: Phase Stability and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 201–234)

      Samanvaya Srivastava, Jennifer L. Schaefer, Zichao Yang, Zhengyuan Tu and Lynden A. Archer

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303070

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      Polymer–particle composites are used in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created that can be exploited for applications. The fundamental approaches and bottom-up synthesis strategies for understanding and controlling nanoparticle dispersion in polymers are reviewed. Applications of these approaches for creating polymer–particle composite electrolytes and electrodes for energy storage are also considered.

    2. 25th Anniversary Article: Metal Oxide Particles in Materials Science: Addressing All Length Scales (pages 235–257)

      Dorota Koziej, Alessandro Lauria and Markus Niederberger

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303161

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      Length scales play a crucial role in materials science and they are similarly important in particle research. In this review we discuss the impact of size effects of metal oxide particles from the nano- to the macroscale on their properties and potential applications.

  7. Communications

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    1. Layer Selective Control of the Lattice Structure in Oxide Superlattices (pages 258–262)

      Alex Frano, Eva Benckiser, Yi Lu, Meng Wu, Miguel Castro-Colin, Manfred Reehuis, Alexander V. Boris, Eric Detemple, Wilfried Sigle, Peter van Aken, Georg Cristiani, Gennady Logvenov, Hanns-Ulrich Habermeier, Peter Wochner, Bernhard Keimer and Vladimir Hinkov

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303483

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      A combined synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study reveals a structural phase transition controlled by the overall thickness of epitaxial nickelate-aluminate superlattices. The transition between uniform and twin-domain states is confined to the nickelate layers and leaves the aluminate layers unaffected.

    2. Acoustic Enhancement of Polymer/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Device Performance (pages 263–268)

      Safa Shoaee, Joe Briscoe, James R. Durrant and Steve Dunn

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303304

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      Acoustic vibrations are shown to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of a P3HT/ZnO nanorod solar cell by up to 45%, correlated to a three-fold increase in charge carrier lifetime. This is assigned to the generation of piezoelectric dipoles in the ZnO nanorods, indicating that the efficiency of solar cells may be enhanced in the presence of ambient vibrations by the use of piezoelectric materials.

    3. Self-Grown Oxy-Hydroxide@ Nanoporous Metal Electrode for High-Performance Supercapacitors (pages 269–272)

      JianLi Kang, Akihiko Hirata, H.-J. Qiu, LuYang Chen, XingBo Ge, Takeshi Fujita and MingWei Chen

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302975

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      A binder-free self-grown oxy-hydroxide@nanoporous Ni-Mn hybrid electrode with high capacitance and cyclic stability is fabricated by electrochemical polarization of a dealloyed nanoporous Ni-Mn alloy. Combined with the low material costs, high electrochemical stability, and environmentally friendly nature, this novel electrode holds great promise for applications in high-capacity commercial supercapacitors.

    4. An In Situ Grazing Incidence X-Ray Scattering Study of Block Copolymer Thin Films During Solvent Vapor Annealing (pages 273–281)

      Xiaodan Gu, Ilja Gunkel, Alexander Hexemer, Weiyin Gu and Thomas P. Russell

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302562

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      In situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering experiments on thin films of block copolymers during annealing in neutral solvent vapors are reported. By removing the solvent in a controlled manner, the period of the microphase separated morphology is found to increase with increasing block copolymer concentration in a power law manner with an exponent ∼ 2/3. By venting the systems at different rates during the solvent removal process, kinetically arresting the system, the period of the microphase separated morphology in the dried film can be varied.

    5. Thermally Stable Autonomic Healing in Epoxy using a Dual-Microcapsule System (pages 282–287)

      Henghua Jin, Chris L. Mangun, Anthony S. Griffin, Jeffrey S. Moore, Nancy R. Sottos and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303179

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      Self-healing is achieved with a dual-microcapsule system utilizing epoxy-amine chemistry in a high temperature cured thermosetting epoxy polymer. One capsule contains a modified aliphatic polyamine prepared by vacuum infiltration of polyoxypropylenetriamine into hollow polymeric microcapsules. The second capsule contains a difunctional epoxide and reactive diluent. Healing efficiency is accessed through recovery of fracture toughness and excellent long-term stability at ambient conditions is demonstrated.

    6. Critical Factors to Achieve Low Voltage- and Capacitance-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 288–292)

      Mi Jang, Ji Hoon Park, Seongil Im, Se Hyun Kim and Hoichang Yang

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303388

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      Hydrophobic organo-compatible but low-capacitance dielectrics (10.5 nFcm−2), polystyrene-grafted SiO2 could induce surface-mediated large crystal grains of face-to-face stacked triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (TES-ADT), producing more efficient charge-carrier transport, in comparison to μm-sized pentacene crystals containing a face-to-edge packing. Low-voltage operating TES-ADT OFETs showed good device performance (μFET ≈ 1.3 cm2V−1 s−1, Vth ≈ 0.5 V, SS ≈ 0.2 V), as well as excellent device reliability.

    7. Ferroelectric Domain Wall Injection (pages 293–298)

      Jonathan R. Whyte, Raymond G. P. McQuaid, Pankaj Sharma, Carlota Canalias, James F. Scott, Alexei Gruverman and J. Marty Gregg

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303567

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      Ferroelectric domain wall injection has been demonstrated by engineering of the local electric field, using focused ion beam milled defects in thin single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO4 (KTP). The electric field distribution (top) displays localized field hot-spots, which correlate with nucleation events (bottom). Designed local field variations can also dictate subsequent domain wall mobility, demonstrating a new paradigm in ferroelectric domain wall control.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Mechanistic Understanding of Processing Additive-Induced Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 2/2014) (page 299)

      Kristin Schmidt, Christopher J. Tassone, Jeremy R. Niskala, Alan T. Yiu, Olivia P. Lee, Thomas M. Weiss, Cheng Wang, Jean M. J. Fréchet, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Michael F. Toney

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470010

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      The introduction of processing additives is widely used to increase power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells. Michael F. Toney, Jeremy R. Niskala and co-workers show on page 300 how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more-intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the organic solar-cell active layer. This results in a five-fold enhancement in efficiency.

  9. Communications

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    1. A Mechanistic Understanding of Processing Additive-Induced Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells (pages 300–305)

      Kristin Schmidt, Christopher J. Tassone, Jeremy R. Niskala, Alan T. Yiu, Olivia P. Lee, Thomas M. Weiss, Cheng Wang, Jean M. J. Fréchet, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Michael F. Toney

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303622

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      The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency.

    2. Bell-Shaped Superhydrophilic–Superhydrophobic–Superhydrophilic Double Transformation on a pH-Responsive Smart Surface (pages 306–310)

      Mengjiao Cheng, Qian Liu, Guannan Ju, Yajun Zhang, Lei Jiang and Feng Shi

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302187

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      Superhydrophobic to neutral water droplets, superhydrophilic to acidic or basic. This double transition of surface wettability in response to a single stimulus – pH – is demonstrated for the first time. The smart surface is composed of a rough gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing three thiols, HS(CH2)11CH3, HS(CH2)10COOH, and HS(CH2)11NH2. A ternary diagram is generated that describes wettability as a function of the SAM composition and the pH of the surrounding solution.

    3. Phase Stability and Defect Physics of a Ternary ZnSnN2 Semiconductor: First Principles Insights (pages 311–315)

      Shiyou Chen, Prineha Narang, Harry A. Atwater and Lin-Wang Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302727

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      First-principles calculations show that ZnSnN2 has a very small formation enthalpy, and the donor defects such as SnZn antisites and ON impurities have high concentration, making the material degenerately n-type, which explains the observed high electron concentration. ZnSnN2 can be regarded as a new material that combines a metal-like conductivity with an optical bandgap around 2 eV.

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      Magnetic Microstructure of Rolled-Up Single-Layer Ferromagnetic Nanomembranes (pages 316–323)

      Robert Streubel, Jehyun Lee, Denys Makarov, Mi-Young Im, Daniil Karnaushenko, Luyang Han, Rudolf Schäfer, Peter Fischer, Sang-Koog Kim and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303003

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      The magnetic microstructure of rolled-up magnetic nanomembranes is revealed both theoretically and experimentally. Two types of nanomembranes are considered, one with a non-magnetic spacer layer and the other without. Experimentally, by using different materials and tuning the dimensions of the rolled-up nanomembranes, domain patterns consisting of spiral-like and azimuthally magnetized domains are observed, which are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions.

    5. Topological Darkness in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Metamaterials (pages 324–330)

      Ludivine Malassis, Pascal Massé, Mona Tréguer-Delapierre, Stephane Mornet, Patrick Weisbecker, Philippe Barois, Constantin R. Simovski, Vasyl G. Kravets and Alexander N. Grigorenko

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303426

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      Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials are fabricated from silver nanoparticles covered with a silica shell. These metamaterials demonstrate topological darkness or selective suppression of reflection connected to global properties of the Fresnel coefficients. The optical properties of the studied structures are in good agreement with effective medium theory. The results suggest a practical way of achieving high phase sensitivity in plasmonic metamaterials.

    6. Thiophene–Thiazolothiazole Copolymers: Significant Impact of Side Chain Composition on Backbone Orientation and Solar Cell Performances (pages 331–338)

      Itaru Osaka, Masahiko Saito, Tomoyuki Koganezawa and Kazuo Takimiya

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303059

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      The backbone orientation in the thiophene–thiazolothiazole (TzTz) copolymer system can be altered by tuning of the alky side chain composition. We highlight that the orientation significantly impact their solar cell efficiency in particular when using thicker active layers.

    7. 3D Nanocomposite Architectures from Carbon-Nanotube-Threaded Nanocrystals for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 339–345)

      Zheng Chen, Yin Yuan, Huihui Zhou, Xiaolei Wang, Zhihua Gan, Fosong Wang and Yunfeng Lu

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303317

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      Better electrode architecture: spherical assemblies of electrochemically active nanocrystals threaded with carbon nanotubes are made using a simple solvation-induced-assembly process. This architecture provides the composites with mechanical robustness, effective ion- and electron-transport pathways, enabling the fabrication of electrodes with high rate, high capacity, and long cycling stability.

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