Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 25

July 2, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 25

Pages 4189–4396

  1. Cover Picture

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      Self-Healing: Continuous Self-Healing Life Cycle in Vascularized Structural Composites (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (page 4189)

      Jason F. Patrick, Kevin R. Hart, Brett P. Krull, Charles E. Diesendruck, Jeffrey S. Moore, Scott R. White and Nancy R. Sottos

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470166

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      By incorporating three-dimensional microvascular networks within a woven glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite N. R. Sottos, S. R. White, and co-workers demonstrate on page 4302 the full recovery (>100%) of mode-I fracture resistance after multiple damage events. This optical image of a fracture plane reveals efficient delivery, mixing and polymerization of the fluorescently dyed, two-part reactive healing chemistry.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Plasmonics: Engineering DNA Binding Sites to Assemble and Tune Plasmonic Nanostructures (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (page 4190)

      Alasdair W. Clark, David G. Thompson, Duncan Graham and Jonathan M. Cooper

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470167

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      On page 4286, A. W. Clark and co-workers demonstrate engineered DNA-nanoparticle binding events that are used to assemble and plasmonically couple nanophotonic bowtie structures. The binding event is engineered to tune the resonance peak of the bowtie to correspond to a 633 nm laser. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is performed on an individual bowtie, showing that a single DNA-nanoparticle binding event can be recorded using this molecular assembly, tuning, and detection strategy.

  3. Inside Back Cover

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      Photovoltaics: Quantification of Nano- and Mesoscale Phase Separation and Relation to Donor and Acceptor Quantum Efficiency, Jsc, and FF in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (page 4399)

      Wei Ma, John R. Tumbleston, Long Ye, Cheng Wang, Jianhui Hou and Harald Ade

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470171

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      On page 4234, J. Hou, H. Ade, and co-workers quantify the composition variations in a complex three-phase, hierarchical morphology of polymer/fullerene devices and establish novel structure–function relations by combining different X-ray scattering techniques. Anti-correlated composition variations between meso- and nanoscale separation are observed and impacted by the solvent mixture.

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      Energy Storage: Energy Storing Electrical Cables: Integrating Energy Storage and Electrical Conduction (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (page 4400)

      Zenan Yu and Jayan Thomas

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470172

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      A novel device architecture of an integrated coaxial cable that functions both as electrical cable and energy-storage device is demonstrated by J. Thomas and Z. Yu, on page 4279. The unique design of this innovative lightweight, flexible, and space-saving cable makes it very attractive for many applications including all-electric and hybrid vehicles, aircraft, heavy machinery, solar energy storage, and many others.

  5. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 25/2014)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470169

  6. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (pages 4191–4199)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470168

  7. Progress Reports

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    1. Nano-Gold as Artificial Enzymes: Hidden Talents (pages 4200–4217)

      Youhui Lin, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400238

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      A significant challenge in chemistry is to create synthetic structures that mimic the complexity and function of natural systems. In this Progress Report, recent progress for enzyme-like catalytic activities based on gold nanomaterials is introduced. The work covers catalytic mechanisms, design and development, and potential applications of these catalysts. Additionally, the perspectives on future opportunities and current challenges are also discussed.

  8. Reviews

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    1. Small Molecule Host Materials for Solution Processed Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 4218–4233)

      Kyoung Soo Yook and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201306266

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      The device performances of solution processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes are greatly improved in the last 10 years. This work reviews recent developments of small molecular host materials for solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

  9. Communications

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    1. Quantification of Nano- and Mesoscale Phase Separation and Relation to Donor and Acceptor Quantum Efficiency, Jsc, and FF in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells (pages 4234–4241)

      Wei Ma, John R. Tumbleston, Long Ye, Cheng Wang, Jianhui Hou and Harald Ade

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400216

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      Two characteristic length scales are revealed and quantified in a complex hierarchical polymer–fullerene blend by combining different X-ray scattering techniques. Anti-correlated composition variations between meso- and nanoscale separation are observed and impacted by the solvent mixture. Due to competition between the impact of the two length scales, the relation to device performance is complex and an ideal morphology is yet to be delineated.

    2. Subnanowatt Opto-Molecular Generation of Localized Defects in Chiral Liquid Crystals (pages 4242–4246)

      Charles Loussert, Supitchaya Iamsaard, Nathalie Katsonis and Etienne Brasselet

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400811

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      The controlled writing and deleting of topological states in soft matter systems is addressed. The reversible lightinduced topological structuring of chiral liquid crystals at the micrometer scale is reported. Various kinds of localized defect structures are generated at subnanowatt optical power levels, which is done by using chiroptical molecular switches that operate at the molecular scale.

    3. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Hybrid Thin Film for Transparent Electrodes and Field Effect Transistors (pages 4247–4252)

      Sung Ho Kim, Wooseok Song, Min Wook Jung, Min-A Kang, Kiwoong Kim, Sung-Jin Chang, Sun Sook Lee, Jongsun Lim, Jinha Hwang, Sung Myung and Ki-Seok An

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400463

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      Single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid films with complementary properties are combined for use in high-performance transparent electrodes and field-effect transistors (FETs). Based on the transfer characteristics for the hybrid film-based FETs, an improved Ion/Ioff and on-state current are achieved, compared with pristine graphene. Notably, the hybrid film has a sheet resistance of 300 Ω/sq with 96.4% transparency.

    4. Highly Stretchable Transistors Using a Microcracked Organic Semiconductor (pages 4253–4259)

      Alex Chortos, Josh Lim, John W. F. To, Michael Vosgueritchian, Thomas J. Dusseault, Tae-Ho Kim, Sungwoo Hwang and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305462

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      Organic transistors with elastic conductors and dielectrics can be stretched up to 250% strain while maintaining the transistor characteristics. Strain-independent properties can be achieved after an initial “programming” cycle that causes the formation of microcracks in the semiconductor. The change in mobility with strain follows the same trend in different stretching directions.

    5. Single-Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Quantum Dots for Fast Pseudocapacitor and Electrochromic Applications (pages 4260–4267)

      Shan Cong, Yuyu Tian, Qingwen Li, Zhigang Zhao and Fengxia Geng

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400447

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      Tungsten oxide quantum dots (QDs) with an average size down to 1.6 nm are developed, serving as a new class of promising electrode materials, which yield efficient and fast electron/ion transport in the charge/discharge process. With a visually impressive display, the QDs present coloration/bleaching times within 1 s, which is much superior to inorganic analogues and even competitive to organic-related materials.

    6. Effective Solution- and Vacuum-Processed n-Doping by Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals (pages 4268–4272)

      Benjamin D. Naab, Siyuan Zhang, Koen Vandewal, Alberto Salleo, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400668

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      Benzimidazoline radical dimers that can be handled in air but that function as powerful reductants are reported and evaluated as n-dopants by solution- and vacuum processing. In several host materials, one of these dimers is found to have a more-consistent doping effect than a hydride-donor dopant analog. Notably, a record high room-temperature conductivity of 12.0 S cm−1 is obtained for doped C60.

    7. Boost Up Mobility of Solution-Processed Metal Oxide Thin-Film Transistors via Confining Structure on Electron Pathways (pages 4273–4278)

      You Seung Rim, Huajun Chen, Xiaolu Kou, Hsin-Sheng Duan, Huanping Zhou, Min Cai, Hyun Jae Kim and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400529

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      Novel structure-engineered amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors using a solution process to overcome the trade-off between high mobility and other parameters (i.e., on/off ratio, sub-threshold voltage swing, threshold voltage, and so on) are proposed. High performance confining structure-engineered AOS TFTs are successfully demonstrated, which utilize a specially designed layer with ultra-high density and high electron mobility.

    8. Energy Storing Electrical Cables: Integrating Energy Storage and Electrical Conduction (pages 4279–4285)

      Zenan Yu and Jayan Thomas

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400440

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      A novel device architecture of a coaxial supercapacitor cable that functions both as an electrical cable and an energy-storage device is demonstrated. The inner core is used for electrical conduction and the overlying layers are used for energy storage. This unique design provides excellent flexibility, long and stable cycle lifetimes, and high energy and power densities. All these remarkable results demonstrate a clear technological advance achieved by clubbing electrical conduction and energy storage into a single cable.

    9. Engineering DNA Binding Sites to Assemble and Tune Plasmonic Nanostructures (pages 4286–4292)

      Alasdair W. Clark, David G. Thompson, Duncan Graham and Jonathan M. Cooper

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400510

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      Single DNA-nanoparticle binding is used to couple the plasmonic fields of nanophotonic bowtie dimers. The binding event is engineered to tune the resonance peak of the bowtie to correspond with a 633 nm laser. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is performed on an individual bowtie, showing that a single DNA-nanoparticle binding event can be recorded.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
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    6. Masthead
    7. Contents
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Reviews
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    13. Research News
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      Carbon Nanocapsules: Colloidal RBC-Shaped, Hydrophilic, and Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Nanocapsules for Highly Efficient Biomedical Engineering (Adv. Mater. 25/2014) (page 4293)

      Yu Chen, Pengfei Xu, Meiying Wu, Qingshuo Meng, Hangrong Chen, Zhu Shu, Jin Wang, Lingxia Zhang, Yaping Li and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470170

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      On page 4294, J. L. Shi, Y. P. Li, H. R. Chen, and co-workers demonstrate a facile and versatile synthetic route (templated framework pyrolysis) toward the construction of red blood cellsshaped hydrophilic and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules (HMCNs) for highly efficient biomedical engineering. These HMCNs exhibit high performance with regard to stimuliresponsive drug release, anti-metastasis, and reversal of the multidrug resistance of cancer cells.

  11. Communications

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    1. Colloidal RBC-Shaped, Hydrophilic, and Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Nanocapsules for Highly Efficient Biomedical Engineering (pages 4294–4301)

      Yu Chen, Pengfei Xu, Meiying Wu, Qingshuo Meng, Hangrong Chen, Zhu Shu, Jin Wang, Lingxia Zhang, Yaping Li and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400303

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      A facile and versatile synthetic route (templated framework pyrolysis) toward the construction of a new colloidal carbon nanosystem based on red blood cell (RBC)-shaped, hydrophilic, and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules (HMCNs) is developed for highly efficient biomedical engineering, including stimuli-responsive drug release, inhibiting the metastasis, and circumventing the multidrug resistance of cancer cells.

    2. Continuous Self-Healing Life Cycle in Vascularized Structural Composites (pages 4302–4308)

      Jason F. Patrick, Kevin R. Hart, Brett P. Krull, Charles E. Diesendruck, Jeffrey S. Moore, Scott R. White and Nancy R. Sottos

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400248

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      By incorporating 3D microvascular networks containing a two-part reactive chemistry within a fiber-reinforced composite, continuous cycles of self-healing after interlaminar delamination are achieved. An interpenetrating vasculature shows improved in situ fluid mixing over segregated microchannels, resulting in full recovery (>100%) of mode-I fracture resistance.

    3. Sub-Nanometer Conformal TiO2 Blocking Layer for High Efficiency Solid-State Perovskite Absorber Solar Cells (pages 4309–4312)

      Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Aswani Yella, Matthew T. Mayer, Peng Gao, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201306271

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      A mere 2 nm conformal titanium dioxide overlayer coated by atomic layer deposition is shown to act as a blocking layer for high-efficiency solid-state perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) absorber-based solar cells. Surpassing the existing multilayer passivation, this ultrathin sub-nanometer layer leads to a photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 11.5%.

    4. Solution-Processed, Molecular Photovoltaics that Exploit Hole Transfer from Non-Fullerene, n-Type Materials (pages 4313–4319)

      Jessica D. Douglas, Mark S. Chen, Jeremy R. Niskala, Olivia P. Lee, Alan T. Yiu, Eric P. Young and Jean M. J. Fréchet

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305444

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      Solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices containing p-type and non-fullerene n-type small molecules obtain power conversion efficiencies as high as 2.4%. The optoelectronic properties of the n-type material BT(TTI-n12)2 allow these devices to display high open-circuit voltages (>0.85 V) and generate significant charge carriers through hole transfer in addition to the electron-transfer pathway, which is common in fullerene-based devices.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Solution-Processed, Molecular Photovoltaics that Exploit Hole Transfer from Non Fullerene, n-Type Materials

      Vol. 26, Issue 27, 4606, Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014

    5. Electric Field Manipulation of Magnetization Rotation and Tunneling Magnetoresistance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions at Room Temperature (pages 4320–4325)

      Peisen Li, Aitian Chen, Dalai Li, Yonggang Zhao, Sen Zhang, Lifeng Yang, Yan Liu, Meihong Zhu, Huiyun Zhang and Xiufeng Han

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400617

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      Electric-field-controlled tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of magnetic tunnel junctions is considered as the milestone of ultralow power spintronic devices. Here, reversible, continuous magnetization rotation and manipulation is reported for TMR at room temperature in CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB/piezoelectric structure by electric fields without the assistance of a magnetic field through strain-mediated interaction. These results provide a new way of exploring electric-field-controlled spintronics.

    6. Controllable Synthesis of Hollow Si Anode for Long-Cycle-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 4326–4332)

      Xingkang Huang, Joseph Yang, Shun Mao, Jingbo Chang, Peter B. Hallac, Christopher R. Fell, Bernhard Metz, Junwei Jiang, Patrick T. Hurley and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400578

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      A versatile and surfactant-free method is developed to synthesize hollow Si materials using carbonates as templates without the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. The morphology of Si is controllable from hollow cubes, spheres, and tubes, to flowers and other shapes. Such hollow Si materials as anodes of lithium-ion batteries show excellent cyclic performance, which is promising for practical applications.

    7. Cationic Conjugated Polymers for Discrimination of Microbial Pathogens (pages 4333–4338)

      Huanxiang Yuan, Zhang Liu, Libing Liu, Fengting Lv, Yilin Wang and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400636

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      A new cationic poly(phenylene vinylene) derivative (PPV-NMe3+) is synthesized, and it exhibits a differential binding ability to microbial cell walls with different components. By varying the ion strengths of the buffer solution, single PPV-NMe3+ molecules can discriminate fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria in a rapid and simple manner. Thus, cationic conjugated polymers exhibit high potential as a diagnostic material for the detection and discrimination of pathogens.

    8. A Monolayer Polyoxometalate Superlattice (pages 4339–4344)

      Peilei He, Biao Xu, Peng-peng Wang, Huiling Liu and Xun Wang

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400856

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      Superlattice@GO heterostructures: a simple method for the preparation of monolayer superlattices containing a Wells–Dawson-type polyoxometalate (POM) is developed. POM-based building blocks are assembled on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) to form a superlattice@GO structure that shows excellent performance in hydrogen peroxide sensing and catalysis of water photo-oxidation.

    9. Creating Gecko-Like Adhesives for “Real World” Surfaces (pages 4345–4351)

      Daniel R. King, Michael D. Bartlett, Casey A. Gilman, Duncan J. Irschick and Alfred J. Crosby

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201306259

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      Fabricated adhesives are demonstrated to support high loads while maintaining easy release on a variety of “real world” surfaces. These adhesives consist of simple elastomers and fabrics without nano- or micrometer scale features, yet they surpass the adhesive force capacity of live Tokay geckos and can be scaled to large sizes.

    10. Diffuse White Structural Coloration from Multilayer Reflectors in a Squid (pages 4352–4356)

      George R. R. Bell, Lydia M. Mäthger, Meng Gao, Stephen L. Senft, Alan M. Kuzirian, George W. Kattawar and Roger T. Hanlon

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400383

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      The white stripes of the pyjama squid (Sepioloidea lineolata) contain multilayer reflectors with an unordered plate arrangement, enabling reflectance of diffuse white light over a range of viewing angles. Ultrastructural analysis and mathematical modeling are employed to elucidate functional mechanisms of diffuse reflectance. This optical system may provide a bio-inspired template for low-energy, reflectance-based synthetic displays.

    11. Ordering Effects in Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione Polymers with >7% Solar Cell Efficiency (pages 4357–4362)

      Julien Warnan, Clément Cabanetos, Abdulrahman El Labban, Michael Ryan Hansen, Christopher Tassone, Michael F. Toney and Pierre M. Beaujuge

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305344

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      Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDFTPD) polymers prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >7% in bulk-heterojunction solar cells with phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In “as-cast” PBDFTPD-based devices solution-processed without a small-molecule additive, high PCEs can be obtained in spite of the weak propensity of the polymers to self-assemble and form π-aggregates in thin films.

    12. Cup-Stacked Carbon Nanotube Schottky Diodes for Photovoltaics and Photodetectors (pages 4363–4369)

      Ki-Hwan Kim, David Brunel, Aurelien Gohier, Leandro Sacco, Marc Châtelet and Costel-Sorin Cojocaru

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400775

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      High-performance optoelectronic devices based on cup-stacked carbon nanotubes are realized. Based on a Schottky barrier model, rectifying behaviors and high photo­response are observed by using growth catalysts as nanoscale electronic contacts. Similar performances are also obtained and furthermore tuned by using the nanotube's defective surface as effective decoration sites, transforming nanotube resistors into Schottky diodes.

    13. Self-Recovering Tough Gel Electrolyte with Adjustable Supercapacitor Performance (pages 4370–4375)

      Xinhua Liu, Dongbei Wu, Huanlei Wang and Qigang Wang

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400240

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      A self-recovering gel with integrated functions synthesized via self-initiated UV poly­merization is described. It offers an effective platform for a gel electrolyte to attain adjustable supercapacitor performances for energy-storage devices.

    14. Electronic Properties of Isosymmetric Phase Boundaries in Highly Strained Ca-Doped BiFeO3 (pages 4376–4380)

      Jan Seidel, Morgan Trassin, Yi Zhang, Peter Maksymovych, Tino Uhlig, Peter Milde, Denny Köhler, Arthur P. Baddorf, Sergei V. Kalinin, Lukas M. Eng, Xiaoqing Pan and Ramamoorthy Ramesh

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400557

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      Anisotropic electronic conductivity is reported for isosymmetric phase boundaries in highly strained bismuth ferrite, which are the (fully epitaxial) connecting regions between two different structural variants of the same material. Strong correlations between nanoscale phase transitions and the local electronic conductivity are found. A high degree of control over their electronic properties can be attained through non-local electrical switching.

    15. Mechanically Gated Electrical Switches by Creasing of Patterned Metal/Elastomer Bilayer Films (pages 4381–4385)

      Ben Xu, Dayong Chen and Ryan C. Hayward

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400992

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      Strain-gated logic devices are important for the development of advanced flexible electronics. Using a dual-monolayer-promoted film-transfer technique, flexible multilayer structures capable of undergoing large compressive deformation are prepared. Formation of a crease in the gap between electrodes at a geometrically tunable strain leads to the formation of an electrical connection in a reversible and reproducible fashion.

  12. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Masthead
    7. Contents
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Reviews
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    13. Research News
    1. Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly (pages 4386–4396)

      Caroline A. Ross, Karl K. Berggren, Joy Y. Cheng, Yeon Sik Jung and Jae-Byum Chang

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400386

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      This article reviews nanofabrication methods based on the inherently three-dimensional structure of block copolymer microdomains, which could lead to efficient fabrication of complex heterogeneous nanostructures and devices. The image shows an example in which a bilayer of cylindrical microdomains is ordered using topographical posts to form a three-dimensional crosspoint structure.

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