Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 28

July 23, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 28

Pages 4753–4906

  1. Cover Picture

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    11. Communications
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      Bulk Materials: Ultra-strong and Low-Density Nanotubular Bulk Materials with Tunable Feature Sizes (Adv. Mater. 28/2014) (page 4753)

      Monika M. Biener, Jianchao Ye, Theodore F. Baumann, Y. Morris Wang, Swanee J. Shin, Juergen Biener and Alex V. Hamza

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470188

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      The 3D interconnected nanotubular morphology of ultra-strong, low-density bulk materials derived by atomic layer deposition templating of nanoporous gold is demonstrated by M. M. Biener and co-workers on page 4808. This process provides deterministic control over density, feature size and composition. The unique morphology makes this material stronger and stiffer than other low density materials and opens the door to new filtration and catalysis applications.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Nanogenerators: Self-Powered Cardiac Pacemaker Enabled by Flexible Single Crystalline PMN-PT Piezoelectric Energy Harvester (Adv. Mater. 28/2014) (page 4754)

      Geon-Tae Hwang, Hyewon Park, Jeong-Ho Lee, SeKwon Oh, Kwi-Il Park, Myunghwan Byun, Hyelim Park, Gun Ahn, Chang Kyu Jeong, Kwangsoo No, HyukSang Kwon, Sang-Goo Lee, Boyoung Joung and Keon Jae Lee

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470189

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      A self-powered artificial pacemaker is demonstrated using a high-performance flexible piezoelectric PMN-PT thinfilm energy harvester. As reported by K. J. Lee and co-workers on page 4880, a PMN-PT harvesting device can convert slight mechanical movements to high electric power and provides functional electrical stimulation of a living heart.

  3. Inside Back Cover

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      Metal–Organic Frameworks: Integration of an Inorganic Semiconductor with a Metal–Organic Framework: A Platform for Enhanced Gaseous Photocatalytic Reactions (Adv. Mater. 28/2014) (page 4907)

      Rui Li, Jiahua Hu, Mingsen Deng, Helin Wang, Xijun Wang, Yingli Hu, Hai-Long Jiang, Jun Jiang, Qun Zhang, Yi Xie and Yujie Xiong

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470193

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      Efficient charge transfer occurs between a semiconductor and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in the hybrid MOF-semiconductor core-shell structures designed and fabricated by Y. Xiong, Q. Zhang, J. Jiang and co-workers, as described on page 4783. This unique architecture supplies long-lifetime electrons for photocatalytic reduction of MOF-captured carbon dioxide into methane fuels with assistance of water.

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      Rational Design: Rationally Designed Single-Crystalline Nanowire Networks (Adv. Mater. 28/2014) (page 4908)

      Diana Car, Jia Wang, Marcel A. Verheijen, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers and Sébastien R. Plissard

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470194

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      Rational bottom-up assembly of nanowire networks may be a way to successfully continue miniaturization in the semiconductor industry. On page 4875, D. Car and co-workers demonstrate a generic method that ensures the InSb nanowires meet under the optimal angle for formation of single-crystalline structures, which are a promising platform for future random access memories based on Majorana fermions.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 28/2014)

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470191

  6. Contents

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    7. Contents
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  7. Reviews

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    11. Communications
    1. Flexible Energy-Storage Devices: Design Consideration and Recent Progress (pages 4763–4782)

      Xianfu Wang, Xihong Lu, Bin Liu, Di Chen, Yexiang Tong and Guozhen Shen

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400910

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      Flexible energy-storage devices are indispensable to the development of flexible electronics. This review surveys recent achievements, focusing on flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors combined with integrated energy-storage systems.

  8. Communications

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    11. Communications
    1. Integration of an Inorganic Semiconductor with a Metal–Organic Framework: A Platform for Enhanced Gaseous Photocatalytic Reactions (pages 4783–4788)

      Rui Li, Jiahua Hu, Mingsen Deng, Helin Wang, Xijun Wang, Yingli Hu, Hai-Long Jiang, Jun Jiang, Qun Zhang, Yi Xie and Yujie Xiong

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400428

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      Ultrafast spectroscopy demonstrates that charge transfer can occur between photoexcited inorganic semiconductors and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), supplying long-lifetime electrons for the reduction of gas molecules adsorbed on the MOF. As a proof of concept, a unique method is developed for synthesizing Cu3(BTC)2@TiO2 core–shell structures with macroporous semiconductor shells that allow gas molecules to be captured in the cores.

    2. Highly Compressible Macroporous Graphene Monoliths via an Improved Hydrothermal Process (pages 4789–4793)

      Yingru Li, Ji Chen, Liang Huang, Chun Li, Jong-Dal Hong and Gaoquan Shi

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400657

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      An improved hydrothermal process is developed to fabricate macroporous graphene monoliths (MGMs) using a soft template of organic droplets. The MGMs are constructed from closed-cell distorted spherical pores. This unique microstructure makes MGMs that have low weight densities, good electrical conductivities, and excellent elasticity with rapid recovery rates.

    3. Multifunctional Theranostic Red Blood Cells For Magnetic-Field-Enhanced in vivo Combination Therapy of Cancer (pages 4794–4802)

      Chao Wang, Xiaoqi Sun, Liang Cheng, Shengnan Yin, Guangbao Yang, Yonggang Li and Zhuang Liu

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400158

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      Red blood cells are attached to iron oxide nanoparticles pre-coated with chlorine e6, a photosensitizer, and then loaded with a chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin, to enable imaging-guided combined photodynamic and chemotherapy of cancer, achieving excellent synergistic therapeutic effects in an animal tumor model. This work highlights the great promise of integrating cell-based drug-delivery systems with nanotechnology as a biocompatible multifunctional platform for applications in cancer theranostics.

    4. Ion-Selective Organic Electrochemical Transistors (pages 4803–4807)

      Michele Sessolo, Jonathan Rivnay, Enrico Bandiello, George G. Malliaras and Henk J. Bolink

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400731

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      Ion-selective organic electrochemical transistors with sensitivity to potassium approaching 50 μA dec−1 are demonstrated. The remarkable sensitivity arises from the use of high transconductance devices, where the conducting polymer is in direct contact with a reference gel electrolyte and integrated with an ion-selective membrane.

    5. Ultra-strong and Low-Density Nanotubular Bulk Materials with Tunable Feature Sizes (pages 4808–4813)

      Monika M. Biener, Jianchao Ye, Theodore F. Baumann, Y. Morris Wang, Swanee J. Shin, Juergen Biener and Alex V. Hamza

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400249

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      The synthesis of ultralow-density (>5 mg/cm3) bulk materials with interconnected nanotubular morphology and deterministic, fully tunable feature size, composition, and density is presented. A thin-walled nanotubular design realized by employing templating based on atomic layer deposition makes the material about 10 times stronger and stiffer than aerogels of the same density.

    6. Leveraging the Ambipolar Transport in Polymeric Field-Effect Transistors via Blending with Liquid-Phase Exfoliated Graphene (pages 4814–4819)

      Mirella El Gemayel, Sébastien Haar, Fabiola Liscio, Andrea Schlierf, Georgian Melinte, Silvia Milita, Ovidiu Ersen, Artur Ciesielski, Vincenzo Palermo and Paolo Samorì

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400895

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      Enhancement in the ambipolar behavior of field-effect transistors based on an n-type polymer, P(NDI2OD-T2), is obtained by co-deposition with liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. This approach provides a prospective pathway for the application of graphene-based nanocomposites for logic circuits.

    7. Buckled Germanene Formation on Pt(111) (pages 4820–4824)

      Linfei Li, Shuang-zan Lu, Jinbo Pan, Zhihui Qin, Yu-qi Wang, Yeliang Wang, Geng-yu Cao, Shixuan Du and Hong-Jun Gao

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400909

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      Germanene, a 2D honeycomb lattice analogous to graphene, is fabricated on a Pt(111) surface. It exhibits a buckled configuration with a (3 × 3) superlattice coinciding with the substrate's (√19 × √19) superstructure. Covalent bonds exist throughout the germanene layer. The resulting high-quality germanene enables researchers to explore the fundamentals of germanene and its potential applications.

    8. Reverse-Micelle-Induced Porous Pressure-Sensitive Rubber for Wearable Human–Machine Interfaces (pages 4825–4830)

      Sungmook Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Jaemin Kim, Suji Choi, Jongsu Lee, Inhyuk Park, Taeghwan Hyeon and Dae-Hyeong Kim

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401364

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      A novel method to produce porous pressure-sensitive rubber is developed. For the controlled size distribution of embedded micropores, solution-based procedures using reverse micelles are adopted. The piezosensitivity of the pressure sensitive rubber is significantly increased by introducing micropores. Using this method, wearable human–machine interfaces are fabricated, which can be applied to the remote control of a robot.

    9. All-Carbon Vertical van der Waals Heterostructures: Non-destructive Functionalization of Graphene for Electronic Applications (pages 4831–4837)

      Mirosław Woszczyna, Andreas Winter, Miriam Grothe, Annika Willunat, Stefan Wundrack, Rainer Stosch, Thomas Weimann, Franz Ahlers and Andrey Turchanin

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400948

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      Non-destructive chemical functionalization of graphene for applications in electronic devices (e.g., sensors or transducers) is achieved via assembly of carbon nanomembrane (CNM)/single-layer graphene (SLG) van der Waals heterostructures. The CNMs are 1 nm-thick, dielectric molecular sheets terminated with functional amino groups. The structure and performance of heterostructured field-effect transistors (FETs) are characterized by photoelectron/Raman spectroscopy and by electric transport measurements in vacuum, ambient conditions and water.

    10. Graphene/MoS2 Heterostructures for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridisation (pages 4838–4844)

      Phan Thi Kim Loan, Wenjing Zhang, Cheng-Te Lin, Kung-Hwa Wei, Lain-Jong Li and Chang-Hsiao Chen

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401084

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      The photoluminescence signals of a graphene/MoS2 heterostructural stacking film are sensitive to environmental charges, which allows the single-base sequence-selective detection of DNA hybridization with sensitivity to the level of aM.

    11. p-i-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with a Colloidal Quantum-Dot Absorber Layer (pages 4845–4850)

      Dong-Kyun Ko, Patrick R. Brown, Moungi G. Bawendi and Vladimir Bulović

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401250

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      A quantum-dot (QD) p-i-n heterojunction solar cell with an increased depletion region is demonstrated by depleting the QD layer from both the front and back junctions. Due to a combination of improved charged extraction and increased light absorption, a 120% increase in the short-circuit current is achieved compared with that of conventional ZnO/QD devices.

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      Nanosecond Intersystem Crossing Times in Fullerene Acceptors: Implications for Organic Photovoltaic Diodes (pages 4851–4854)

      Philip C. Y. Chow, Sebastian Albert-Seifried, Simon Gélinas and Richard H. Friend

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400846

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      Triplet-exciton formation through intersystem crossing of photogenerated singlet excitons in fullerene acceptors can compete with charge generation in organic photovoltaic diodes. This article reports the intersystem crossing timescale (τISC) of the most commonly used fullerene acceptors, PC60BM and PC70BM, in solutions and in spin-coated films. These times are on the nanosecond timescale, and are longer than the characteristic times for charge generation (τd).

    13. Nanostructured Graphene Composite Papers for Highly Flexible and Foldable Supercapacitors (pages 4855–4862)

      Lili Liu, Zhiqiang Niu, Li Zhang, Weiya Zhou, Xiaodong Chen and Sishen Xie

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401513

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      Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polyaniline (PANI) assemble onto the surface of cellulose fibers (CFs) and into the pores of CF paper, to form a hierarchical nanostructured PANI-rGO/CF composite paper. Based on these composite papers, flexible and foldable all-solid-state supercapacitors are achieved.

    14. Solid-State Biophotovoltaic Cells Containing Photosystem I (pages 4863–4869)

      Pavlo I. Gordiichuk, Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Dolev Rimmerman, Agnieszka Gruszka, Jan Willem de Vries, Manfred Saller, Daniel A. Gautier, Stefano Catarci, Diego Pesce, Shachar Richter, Paul W. M. Blom and Andreas Herrmann

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401135

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      The large multiprotein complex, photosystem I (PSI), which is at the heart of light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis, is integrated as the active component in a solid-state organic photovoltaic cell. These experiments demonstrate that photoactive megadalton protein complexes are compatible with solution processing of organic-semiconductor materials and operate in a dry non-natural environment that is very different from the biological membrane.

    15. A Re-evaluation of How Functional Groups Modify the Electronic Structure of Graphene Oxide (pages 4870–4874)

      Adrian Hunt, Ernst Z. Kurmaev and Alex Moewes

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401300

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      The first 4 eV of the conduction band in graphene oxide is dominated by states from carbon sites that are in close proximity, but not directly bonded, to oxidizing functional groups. The carbon sites that are bonded directly to these groups, such as epoxide and hydroxyl groups, are much higher in energy.

    16. Rationally Designed Single-Crystalline Nanowire Networks (pages 4875–4879)

      Diana Car, Jia Wang, Marcel A. Verheijen, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers and Sébastien R. Plissard

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400924

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      Rational bottom-up assembly of nanowire networks may be a way to successfully continue the miniaturization in the semiconductor industry. A generic method is developed that ensures InSb nanowires meet under the optimal angle for the formation of single-crystalline structures, which represents a promising platform for the future random access memories based on Majorana fermions.

    17. Self-Powered Cardiac Pacemaker Enabled by Flexible Single Crystalline PMN-PT Piezoelectric Energy Harvester (pages 4880–4887)

      Geon-Tae Hwang, Hyewon Park, Jeong-Ho Lee, SeKwon Oh, Kwi-Il Park, Myunghwan Byun, Hyelim Park, Gun Ahn, Chang Kyu Jeong, Kwangsoo No, HyukSang Kwon, Sang-Goo Lee, Boyoung Joung and Keon Jae Lee

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400562

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      A flexible single-crystalline PMN-PT piezoelectric energy harvester is demonstrated to achieve a self-powered artificial cardiac pacemaker. The energy-harvesting device generates a short-circuit current of 0.223 mA and an open-circuit voltage of 8.2 V, which are enough not only to meet the standard for charging commercial batteries but also for stimulating the heart without an external power source.

  9. Frontispiece

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      Liquid Transfer: Chinese Brushes: Controllable Liquid Transfer in Ratchet Conical Hairs (Adv. Mater. 28/2014) (page 4888)

      Qianbin Wang, Bin Su, Huan Liu and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470192

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      As an important writing tool over the past 5000 years, Chinese brushes allow manipulation of ink in a controlled manner. L. Jiang, H. Liu, and co-workers demonstrate on page 4889 that controllable liquid transfer of the Chinese brush is attributable to the unique anisotropic multi-scale structures of the freshly emergent animal hairs. Drawing inspiration, a device with parallel hairs is developed that allows for direct writing functional microwires.

  10. Communications

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    1. Chinese Brushes: Controllable Liquid Transfer in Ratchet Conical Hairs (pages 4889–4894)

      Qianbin Wang, Bin Su, Huan Liu and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400865

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      The controllable liquid transfer of a Chinese brush is attributable to the unique anisotropic multi-scale structures of the freshly emergent hairs. A large mass of liquid an be dynamically balanced within the brush as a cooperative effect of the Laplace pressure difference, the asymmetrical retention force, and gravity. Inspired by this, a device is developed with parallel hairs that allows for direct writing of micro-lines.

    2. A Vertically Integrated Solar-Powered Electrochromic Window for Energy Efficient Buildings (pages 4895–4900)

      Aubrey L. Dyer, Rayford H. Bulloch, Yinhua Zhou, Bernard Kippelen, John R. Reynolds and Fengling Zhang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201401400

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      A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity.

    3. Soft Grippers Using Micro-fibrillar Adhesives for Transfer Printing (pages 4901–4906)

      Sukho Song and Metin Sitti

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400630

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      The adhesive characteristics of fibrillar adhesives on a soft deformable membrane are reported. A soft gripper with an inflatable membrane covered by elastomer mushroom-shaped microfibers have a superior conformation to non-planar 3D part geometries, enabling the transfer printing of various parts serially or in parallel.

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