Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 3

January 22, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 3

Pages 349–500

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      Chemical Vapor Deposition: Stable Dropwise Condensation for Enhancing Heat Transfer via the Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Grafted Polymer Films (Adv. Mater. 3/2014) (page 349)

      Adam T. Paxson, Jose L. Yagüe, Karen K. Gleason and Kripa K. Varanasi

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470012

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      Steam condenses onto a hydrophobic grafted copoly mer film to form discrete condensate drops, leading to a seven-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient over a typical hydrophilic metal surface. Most hydrophobic modifiers quickly degrade in the presence of steam, but this covalently bonded crosslinked fluoropolymer withstands an accelerated endurance test with no change in performance, as described by Kripa K. Varanasi, Karen K. Gleason and co-workers on page 418.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Biomedical Applications: Multifunctional Plasmonic Nanorattles for Spectrum-Guided Locoregional Therapy (Adv. Mater. 3/2014) (page 350)

      Naveen Gandra, Christopher Portz and Srikanth Singamaneni

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470013

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      On page 424, Srikanth Singamaneni and co-workers introduce a new class of multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures for locoregional combination therapy of cancer cells and non-invasive monitoring of the therapy process. This new class of responsive surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes will look for a Raman signal “flip”, which indicates the completion of the therapy process and can potentially replace conventional live/dead staining agents.

  3. Inside Back Cover

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      Semiconductors: Bio-Inspired Band Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide by Intracrystalline Incorporation of Amino Acids (Adv. Mater. 3/2014) (page 503)

      Anastasia Brif, Guy Ankonina, Christina Drathen and Boaz Pokroy

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470016

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      A bioinspired route for bandgap engineering of zinc oxide semiconductors by incorporation of organic molecules within the crystal structure is described by Boaz Pokroy and co-workers on page 477. These molecules, while present during the crystallization process, indeed get incorporated into the crystal, inducing lattice strains, which are accompanied by a linear bandgap shift.

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      Organic Electronics: Charge Transport Over Multiple Length Scales in Supramolecular Fiber Transistors: Single Fiber Versus Ensemble Performance (Adv. Mater. 3/2014) (page 504)

      Jeffrey M. Mativetsky, Emanuele Orgiu, Ingo Lieberwirth, Wojciech Pisula and Paolo Samorì

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470017

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      The transistor characteristics of self-assembled organic fibers are assessed both individually and at the ensemble level by Paolo Samorì and co-workers on page 430. Their work demonstrates the first evidence of band-like transport in a solution-processed n-type organic semiconductor, and an intrinsic electron mobility that is several orders of magnitude higher than in fiber ensembles or spin-cast films, highlighting the performance potential of self-assembled organic architectures.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 3/2014)

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470015

  6. Contents

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  7. Correction

    1. Top of page
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      Shape-Memory Surface with Dynamically Tunable Nano-Geometry Activated by Body Heat (page 358)

      Mitsuhiro Ebara, Koichiro Uto, Naokazu Idota, John M. Hoffman and Takao Aoyagi

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303705

      This article corrects:

      Shape-Memory Surface with Dynamically Tunable Nano-Geometry Activated by Body Heat

      Vol. 24, Issue 2, 273–278, Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011

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      Matrix-Assisted Catalytic Printing for the Fabrication of Multiscale, Flexible, Foldable, and Stretchable Metal Conductors (page 358)

      Ruisheng Guo, You Yu, Zhuang Xie, Xuqing Liu, Xuechang Zhou, Yufan Gao, Zhilu Liu, Feng Zhou, Yong Yang and Zijian Zheng

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303706

      This article corrects:
  8. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Interfacing Nanoparticles and Biology: New Strategies for Biomedicine (pages 359–370)

      Gulen Yesilbag Tonga, Krishnendu Saha and Vincent M. Rotello

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303001

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      Surface chemistry of nanoparticles (NPs) is an essential factor that governs the interactions of nanoparticles with biosystems. Comprehensive knowledge of how NP surface chemistry affects the interactions with biomolecules, cells, and tissues can be used to design useful delivery and imaging systems.

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      25th Anniversary Article: Exploring Nanoscaled Matter from Speciation to Phase Diagrams: Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles as a Case of Study (pages 371–390)

      Sophie Carenco, David Portehault, Cédric Boissière, Nicolas Mézailles and Clément Sanchez

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303198

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      Consequences of nanoscaling on phase speciations and the determination of phase diagrams are discussed, using metal phosphide nanoparticles as a case of study. They can indeed be prepared via a range of solution routes, with a tailored composition and morphology. This provides a ground for rich comparisons in terms of relative stability of the phases and morphologies. Altogether, the discussion proposed in this review fuels the quest for in-depth understanding of thermodynamics and kinetics of nanoscaled condensed matter.

    3. MSN Anti-Cancer Nanomedicines: Chemotherapy Enhancement, Overcoming of Drug Resistance, and Metastasis Inhibition (pages 391–411)

      Qianjun He and Jianlin Shi

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303123

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      Anti-cancer nanomedicine: mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanomedicines functionalized with targeting, burst responsive, and payload units, as well as a stealth coating, can enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy and lower toxic side effects by tumor/cell membrane/nuclear-targeted drug delivery and pH/redox/protease-responsive drug release. Moreover, MSN nanomedicines overcome multi-drug resistance by the multi-drug synergy strategy, the effluxcircumventing strategy, and the multimodal combination therapy strategy, and inhibit tumor metastasis.

  9. Communications

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    1. What's Inside the Box? – Length-Scales that Govern Fracture Processes of Polymer Fibers (pages 412–417)

      Tristan Giesa, Nicola M. Pugno, Joyce Y. Wong, David L. Kaplan and Markus J. Buehler

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303323

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      This work shows that multiple length-scales must be considered concurrently to explain a polymer fiber's impressive mechanical performance and resilience. The considerations of interatomic interactions alone cannot explain the fracture strength observed in biological fibers. Instead, the fracture strength of a fiber depends strongly on the length-scale of observation, including a fiber's sensitivity with respect to cracks and other flaws.

    2. Stable Dropwise Condensation for Enhancing Heat Transfer via the Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Grafted Polymer Films (pages 418–423)

      Adam T. Paxson, Jose L. Yagüe, Karen K. Gleason and Kripa K. Varanasi

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303065

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      Ultra-thin copolymer films are deposited by initiated chemical deposition (iCVD) to investigate their performance under the condensation of water vapor. By forming a grafted interface between the coating and the substrate, the films exhibit stable dropwise condensation even when subjected to 100 °C steam. The applicability of the iCVD to complex substrate geometries is demonstrated on a copper condenser coil.

    3. Multifunctional Plasmonic Nanorattles for Spectrum-Guided Locoregional Therapy (pages 424–429)

      Naveen Gandra, Christopher Portz and Srikanth Singamaneni

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302803

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      Locoregional death of cancer cells (in vitro) is induced by ablation of plasmonic nanorattles combined with triggered release of a chemotherapeutic drug from the nanorattles. Completion of the therapy process is indicated by a “Raman signal flip” between the two reporters of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe. The nanorattles enable targeted delivery of payload and simultaneous monitoring of the payload release and the therapy process.

    4. Charge Transport Over Multiple Length Scales in Supramolecular Fiber Transistors: Single Fiber Versus Ensemble Performance (pages 430–435)

      Jeffrey M. Mativetsky, Emanuele Orgiu, Ingo Lieberwirth, Wojciech Pisula and Paolo Samorì

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303419

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      Self-assembled organic fibers combine facile solution processing with the performance benefits of single crystals. Here, the first evidence is shown of band-like transport in an n-type solution-processed small molecule system, a limited role of shallow traps, and a single fiber electron mobility that is several orders of magnitude higher than that measured in fiber ensembles or spin-cast films.

    5. Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans Improve Toughness of Biocompatible Double Network Hydrogels (pages 436–442)

      Yu Zhao, Tasuku Nakajima, Jing Jing Yang, Takayuki Kurokawa, Jian Liu, Jishun Lu, Shuji Mizumoto, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Nobuto Kitamura, Kazunori Yasuda, A. U. D. Daniels and Jian Ping Gong

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303387

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      Based on the molecular stent concept, a series of tough double-network hydrogels (St-DN gels) made from the components of proteoglycan aggregates – chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (1), chondroitin sulfate (2), and sodium hyaluronate (3) – are successfully developed in combination with a neutral biocompatible polymer. This work demonstrates a promising method to create biopolymer-based tough hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    6. Imprinted Electrodes for Enhanced Light Trapping in Solution Processed Solar Cells (pages 443–448)

      Agustín Mihi, Fiona J. Beck, Tania Lasanta, Arup K. Rath and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303674

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      A simple approach is demonstrated to combine a light trapping scheme and a conductive substrate for solution processed solar cells. By means of soft lithography, a new light-trapping architecture can be integrated as the bottom electrode for emerging thin-film solar-cell technologies without added costs, fully compatible with low-temperature processes, and yielding an enhancement in the photocurrent without altering the rest of the electrical performance of the device.

    7. Triggered Sorting and Co-Assembly of Genetically Engineered Protein Microdomains in the Cytoplasm (pages 449–454)

      Pu Shi, Yi-An Lin, Martha Pastuszka, Honggang Cui and J. Andrew MacKay

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303356

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      Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are genetically encoded protein polymers that reversibly phase separate in response to stimuli. They respond sharply to small shifts in temperature and form dense microdomains in the living eukaryotic cytosol. For the first time, this communication illustrates how to tune the ELP sequence and architecture for either co-assembly or sorting of distinct proteins into microdomains within a living cell.

    8. Fabrication of Cysteine-Responsive Biomimetic Single Nanochannels by a Thiol-yne Reaction Strategy and Their Application for Sensing in Urine Samples (pages 455–460)

      Zhongyue Sun, Cuiping Han, Miaomiao Song, Long Wen, Demei Tian, Haibing Li and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303158

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      A photoinitiated thiol-yne click reaction strategy is used to fabricate a novel responsive biomimetic nanochannel platform. It displays a selective response for Cys by way of covalent bond formation on the channel surface. This system can be applied for Cys sensing with high specificity and non-interference performance in complex matrices and human urine samples.

    9. Interface-Induced Modulation of Charge and Polarization in Thin Film Fe3O4 (pages 461–465)

      He Tian, Jo Verbeeck, Sebastian Brück, Markus Paul, Dominik Kufer, Michael Sing, Ralph Claessen and Gustaaf Van Tendeloo

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303329

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      Charge and polarization modulations in Fe3O4 are controlled by taking advantage of interfacial strain effects. The feasibility of oxidation state control by strain modification is demonstrated and it is shown that this approach offers a stable configuration at room temperature. Direct evidence of how a local strain field changes the atomic coordination and introduces atomic displacements leading to polarization of Fe ions is presented.

    10. Integrated Polymer Solar Cell and Electrochemical Supercapacitor in a Flexible and Stable Fiber Format (pages 466–470)

      Zhitao Zhang, Xuli Chen, Peining Chen, Guozhen Guan, Longbin Qiu, Huijuan Lin, Zhibin Yang, Wenyu Bai, Yongfeng Luo and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302951

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      An all-solid-state, coaxial and self-powered “energy fiber” is demonstrated that simultaneously converts solar energy to electric energy and further stores it. The “energy fiber” is flexible and can be scaled up for the practical application by the well-developed textile technology, and may open a new avenue to future photoelectronics and electronics.

    11. Dithienocarbazole and Isoindigo based Amorphous Low Bandgap Conjugated Polymers for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells (pages 471–476)

      Yunfeng Deng, Jian Liu, Jiantai Wang, Lihui Liu, Weili Li, Hongkun Tian, Xiaojie Zhang, Zhiyuan Xie, Yanhou Geng and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303586

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      Three highly rigid and planar low-bandgap conjugated polymers comprising alternate isoindigo and dithienocarbazole groups are synthesized for the fabrication of high performance polymer solar cells. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.2% for conventional devices and 8.2% for inverted devices are demonstrated.

    12. Bio-Inspired Band Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide by Intracrystalline Incorporation of Amino Acids (pages 477–481)

      Anastasia Brif, Guy Ankonina, Christina Drathen and Boaz Pokroy

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303596

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      Bandgap engineering of zinc oxide semiconductors can be achieved using a bio-inspired method. During a bioInspired crystallization process, incorporation of amino acids into the crystal structure of ZnO induces lattice strain that leads to linear bandgap shifts. This allows for fine tuning of the bandgap in a bio-inspired route.

    13. On/Off-Switchable Zipper-Like Bioelectronics on a Graphene Interface (pages 482–486)

      Onur Parlak, Anthony P. F. Turner and Ashutosh Tiwari

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303075

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      An on/off-switchable graphene-based zipper-like interface is architectured for efficient bioelectrocatalysis. The graphene interface transduces a temperature input signal into structural changes of the membrane, resulting in the amplification of electrochemical signals and their transformation into the gated transport of molecules through the membrane.

    14. High-Mobility, Aligned Crystalline Domains of TIPS-Pentacene with Metastable Polymorphs Through Lateral Confinement of Crystal Growth (pages 487–493)

      Gaurav Giri, Steve Park, Michael Vosgueritchian, Max Marcel Shulaker and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302439

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      Patterns composed of solvent wetting and dewetting regions promote lateral confinement of solution-sheared and lattice-strained TIPS-pentacene crystals. This lateral confinement causes aligned crystal growth, and the smallest patterns of 0.5 μm wide solvent wetting regions promotes formation of highly strained, aligned, and single-crystalline TIPS-pentacene regions with mobility as high as 2.7 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    15. Amine-Based Polar Solvent Treatment for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells (pages 494–500)

      Bo Ram Lee, Eui Dae Jung, Yun Seok Nam, Minbok Jung, Ji Sun Park, Seungjin Lee, Hyosung Choi, Seo-Jin Ko, Na Ra Shin, Young-Kuk Kim, Sang Ouk Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hyung-Joon Shin, Shinuk Cho and Myoung Hoon Song

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302991

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      The interfacial dipolar polarization in inverted structure polymer solar cells, which arises spontaneously from the absorption of ethanolamine end groups, such as amine and hydroxyl groups on ripple-structure zinc oxide (ZnO-R), lowers the contact barrier for electron transport and extraction and leads to enhanced electron mobility, suppression of bimolecular recombination, reduction of the contact resistance and series resistance, and remarkable enhancement of the power conversion efficiency.

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