Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 26 Issue 5

February 5, 2014

Volume 26, Issue 5

Pages 665–815

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      Lithium-Ion Batteries: Multilayered Si Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode (Adv. Mater. 5/2014) (page 665)

      Jingbo Chang, Xingkang Huang, Guihua Zhou, Shumao Cui, Peter B. Hallac, Junwei Jiang, Patrick T. Hurley and Junhong Chen

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470028

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      Practical applications of high-capacity silicon anodes face significant challenges due to the huge volume change during the lithiation/delithiation process and the relatively low intrinsic electrical conductivity. J. Chen and co-workers report on page 758 a multilayered Si/reduced graphene oxide anode that offers superior reversible specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Composite Materials: Three-Dimensional Compressible and Stretchable Conductive Composites (Adv. Mater. 5/2014) (page 666)

      You Yu, Jifang Zeng, Chaojian Chen, Zhuang Xie, Ruisheng Guo, Zhilu Liu, Xuechang Zhou, Yong Yang and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470029

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      On page 810 Z. J. Zheng and co-workers demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) conductive composites with remarkable flexibility, compressibility, and stretchability that are fabricated by solution deposition of thin metal coatings on chemically modified, macroscopically continuous 3D polyurethane sponges, followed by infiltration of the metallic sponges with polydimethyl siloxane. The conductive composites are used as interconnects for 3D circuits.

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      Nanogenerators: Highly Stretchable Piezoelectric-Pyroelectric Hybrid Nanogenerator (Adv. Mater. 5/2014) (page 820)

      Ju-Hyuck Lee, Keun Young Lee, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Tae Yun Kim, Dae-Yeong Lee, Junho Oh, Changkook Ryu, Won Jong Yoo, Chong-Yun Kang, Seok-Jin Yoon, Ji-Beom Yoo and Sang-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470032

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      A novel highly stretchable piezoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid nanogenerator based on a micro-patterned piezoelectric polymer thin film, PDMS-CNT composite, and graphene is fabricated. Simultaneously mechanical and thermal energies are harvested from a single cell of the device. S.-W. Kim and co-workers show on page 765 that even after 30% stretching, a high robustness behavior and stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric power outputs are obtained due to a micro-pattern designing of the hybrid nanogenerator.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 5/2014)

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201470031

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
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    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
  6. Correction

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      Novel Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Spin-on Resist for Electron- or Photon-Based Nanolithography with Outstanding Resistance to Dry Etching (page 674)

      Erika Zanchetta, Gioia Della Giustina, Gianluca Grenci, Alessandro Pozzato, Massimo Tormen and Giovanna Brusatin

      Version of Record online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303707

  7. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Scalable Multiscale Patterned Structures Inspired by Nature: the Role of Hierarchy (pages 675–700)

      Won-Gyu Bae, Hong Nam Kim, Doogon Kim, Suk-Hee Park, Hoon Eui Jeong and Kahp-Yang Suh

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303412

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      Multiscale patterning techniques have been extensively utilized for the last few decades towards various applications in order to mimic multiscale, hierarchical structures in nature. In this article, we highlight recent advances in scalable mulitscale patterning to bring about improved functions that can even surpass those found in nature.

  8. Communications

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    9. Communications
    1. Interfacial Assembly of Mussel-Inspired Au@Ag@ Polydopamine Core–Shell Nanoparticles for Recyclable Nanocatalysts (pages 701–705)

      Jiajing Zhou, Bo Duan, Zheng Fang, Jibin Song, Chenxu Wang, Phillip B. Messersmith and Hongwei Duan

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303032

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      Recyclable nanocatalysts of core–shell bimetallic nanocrystals are developed through polydopamine coating-directed one-step seeded growth, interfacial assembly, and substrate-immobilization of Au@Ag core–shell nanocrystals. This strategy provides new opportunities to design and optimize heterogeneous nanocatalysts with tailored size, morphology, chemical configuration, and supporting substrates for metal-catalyzed reactions.

    2. Reconfigurable Topography for Rapid Solution Processing of Transparent Conductors (pages 706–711)

      Haosheng Wu, Monisha Menon, Evan Gates, Aditya Balasubramanian and Christopher J. Bettinger

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302377

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      Cost-effective materials for transparent conducting electrodes are essential for many devices used in clean energy production and consumer electronics. Here we report a technique for non-lithographic patterning of silver nanowires on flexible substrates from solution via microcontact transfer printing using donor substrates with reconfigurable topography. This approach is a highly scalable fabrication strategy for high performance transparent conductors.

    3. Spatiotemporal Drug Release Visualized through a Drug Delivery System with Tunable Aggregation-Induced Emission (pages 712–717)

      Xiangdong Xue, Yuanyuan Zhao, Luru Dai, Xu Zhang, Xiaohong Hao, Chunqiu Zhang, Shuaidong Huo, Juan Liu, Chang Liu, Anil Kumar, Wei-Qiang Chen, Guozhang Zou and Xing-Jie Liang

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302365

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      Tetraphenylethene and doxorubicin are assembled into a self-indicating drug delivery system (TD NPs). TD NPs are decomposed into DOX and TPE NPs in lysosome. Since TD NPs, TPE NPs and DOX are all fluorescent, the detachment of DOX from TPE NPs is accompanied by fluorescence changing. By observing the fluorescence changes, the spatiotemporal drug release is visualized.

    4. Phosphate Functionalized Graphene with Tunable Mechanical Properties (pages 718–723)

      John B. Goods, Stefanie A. Sydlik, Joseph J. Walish and Timothy M. Swager

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303477

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      The synthesis of a covalently modified graphene oxide derivative with exceptional and tunable compressive strength is reported. Treatment of graphene oxide with triethyl phosphite in the presence of LiBr produces monolithic structures comprised of lithium phosphate oligomers tethered to graphene through covalent phosphonate linkages. Variation of the both phosphate content and associated cation produces materials of various compressive strengths and elasticity.

    5. Increased Mobility Induced by Addition of a Lewis Acid to a Lewis Basic Conjugated Polymer (pages 724–727)

      Peter Zalar, Martijn Kuik, Zachary B. Henson, Cristiano Woellner, Yuan Zhang, Alexander Sharenko, Guillermo C. Bazan and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303357

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      Through simple addition of a Lewis acid to a conjugated polymer bearing a Lewis basic heteroatom, the hole transport of the polymer can be effectively p-doped resulting in a two-orders increase in hole mobility. The temperature dependent hole transport of a variety of Lewis acid concentrations are explored.

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      Two-Dimensional Carrier Distribution in Top-Gate Polymer Field-Effect Transistors: Correlation between Width of Density of Localized States and Urbach Energy (pages 728–733)

      Auke J. Kronemeijer, Vincenzo Pecunia, Deepak Venkateshvaran, Mark Nikolka, Aditya Sadhanala, John Moriarty, Monika Szumilo and Henning Sirringhaus

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303060

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      A general semiconductor-independent two-dimensional character of the carrier distribution in top-gate polymer field-effect transistors is revealed by analysing temperature-dependent transfer characteristics and the sub-bandgap absorption tails of the polymer semiconductors. A correlation between the extracted width of the density of states and the Urbach energy is presented, corroborating the 2D accumulation layer and demonstrating an intricate connection between optical measurements concerning disorder and charge transport in transistors.

    7. Titania Nanosheet-Mediated Construction of a Two-Dimensional Titania/Cadmium Sulfide Heterostructure for High Hydrogen Evolution Activity (pages 734–738)

      Jian Zhang, Zhenping Zhu, Yanping Tang, Klaus Müllen and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303571

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      Two-dimensional titania nanosheets have been utilized to fabricate 2D titania-based mesoporous silica through a controlled sol-gel method, which can further serve as a robust and versatile template to construct various 2D heterostructures via a nanocasting technology. 2D titania-based CdS has been fabricated. This heterostructure manifests an excellent H2-production rate of 285 μmol·h−1 under visible-light irradiation and an apparent quantum yield of 6.9% at 420 nm.

    8. An Organic Luminescent Molecule: What Will Happen When the “Butterflies” Come Together? (pages 739–745)

      Jibo Zhang, Bin Xu, Jinlong Chen, Suqian Ma, Yujie Dong, Lijuan Wang, Bao Li, Ling Ye and Wenjing Tian

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303639

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      Cross dipole stacking based on a novel fluorescent molecule, 9,10-bis (2,2-diphenylvinyl) anthracene (BDPVA), is presented. The butterfly-like structure of BDPVA is the key feature to form the unique aggregation structure and such a stacking mode is highly beneficial for fluorescence emission, resulting in high-performance amplified spontaneous emission and electroluminescence of BDPVA.

    9. Highly Size-Selective Ionically Crosslinked Multilayer Polymer Films for Light Gas Separation (pages 746–751)

      Daejin Kim, Ping Tzeng, Kevin J. Barnett, You-Hao Yang, Benjamin A. Wilhite and Jaime C. Grunlan

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302177

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      Exceptionally high hydrogen permselectivity, exceeding that of any polymeric or porous inorganic systems, is achieved using an ionically crosslinked multilayer polymer thin film.

    10. A Straightforward Treatment of Activity in Aqueous CaCO3 Solutions and the Consequences for Nucleation Theory (pages 752–757)

      Matthias Kellermeier, Andreas Picker, Andreas Kempter, Helmut Cölfen and Denis Gebauer

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303643

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      The aqueous calcium carbonate system is rigorously investigated with respect to ionic activity. Ideal treatment is found to be a good approximation at relevant concentrations. The data further show that bound CaCO3 species cannot be regarded as "inactive" during nucleation but rather appear to play a key role in the phase-separation process, and that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) can be precipitated from much lower levels of supersaturation than previously believed.

    11. Multilayered Si Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode (pages 758–764)

      Jingbo Chang, Xingkang Huang, Guihua Zhou, Shumao Cui, Peter B. Hallac, Junwei Jiang, Patrick T. Hurley and Junhong Chen

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302757

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      Multilayered Si/RGO anode nanostructures, featuring alternating Si nanoparticle (NP) and RGO layers, good mechanical stability, and high electrical conductivity, allow Si NPs to easily expand between RGO layers, thereby leading to high reversible capacity up to 2300 mAh g−1 at 0.05 C (120 mA g−1) and 87% capacity retention (up to 630 mAh g−1) at 10 C after 152 cycles.

    12. Highly Stretchable Piezoelectric-Pyroelectric Hybrid Nanogenerator (pages 765–769)

      Ju-Hyuck Lee, Keun Young Lee, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Tae Yun Kim, Dae-Yeong Lee, Junho Oh, Changkook Ryu, Won Jong Yoo, Chong-Yun Kang, Seok-Jin Yoon, Ji-Beom Yoo and Sang-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303570

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      A highly stretchable hybrid nanogenerator has been developed using a micro-patterned piezoelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE), PDMS-CNT composite, and graphene nanosheets. Mechanical and thermal energies are simultaneously harvested from a single cell of the device. The hybrid nanogenerator exhibits high robustness behavior even after 30% stretching and generates very stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric power outputs due to micro-pattern designing.

    13. Dynamically Doped White Light Emitting Tandem Devices (pages 770–774)

      Takeo Akatsuka, Cristina Roldán-Carmona, Enrique Ortí and Henk J. Bolink

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303552

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      Solution-processed, salt-containing, blue and orange light-emitting layers lead to efficient white light-emitting devices when arranged in a tandem configuration separated by a thin metal layer.

    14. Magnetically Actuated Patterns for Bioinspired Reversible Adhesion (Dry and Wet) (pages 775–779)

      Dirk-Michael Drotlef, Peter Blümler and Aránzazu del Campo

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303087

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      A facile strategy to obtain magnetically actuated arrays of micropillars able to undergo reversible, homogeneous, drastic, and tunable geometrical changes upon application of a magnetic field with variable strength is demonstrated. A magnetically tunable gecko-inspired adhesive that works under dry and wet conditions is realized using elastomeric micropatterns containing magnetic microparticles.

    15. Conductive Conjugated Polyelectrolyte as Hole-Transporting Layer for Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 780–785)

      Huiqiong Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Cheng-Kang Mai, Samuel D. Collins, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Guillermo C. Bazan and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302845

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      Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been extensively used as the hole-transporting layer (HTL) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, however, its anisotropic electrical conduction and intrinsic acidic nature generally limit the device performance. Here we demonstrate the application of a water/alcohol soluble CPE (CPE-K) as HTLs in BHJ solar cells, achieving a PCE up to 8.2%. The more superior and uniform vertical electrical conductivity found in CPE-K reduces the series resistance and provides efficient hole extraction.

    16. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbon as Hole Extraction Layer to Enhance Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells (pages 786–790)

      Jun Liu, Gi-Hwan Kim, Yuhua Xue, Jin Young Kim, Jong-Beom Baek, Michael Durstock and Liming Dai

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302987

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      Graphene oxide nanoribbons for efficient and stable polymer solar cells are discussed. With controllable bandgap, good solubility and film forming property, graphene oxide nanoribbons serve as a new class of excellent hole extraction materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells outperforming their counterparts based on conventional hole extraction materials, including PEDOT:PSS.

    17. Metal-Containing Block Copolymer Thin Films Yield Wire Grid Polarizers with High Aspect Ratio (pages 791–795)

      So Youn Kim, Jessica Gwyther, Ian Manners, Paul M. Chaikin and Richard A. Register

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303452

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      Highly selective etch masks are formed by thin films of a polystyrene-b-poly(ferrocenylisopropylmethylsilane) diblock copolymer, PS-PFiPMS, containing hemicylindrical domains of PFiPMS. These domains, with a period of 35 nm, are readily aligned through mechanical shear. Aligned PS-PFiPMS templates are employed to fabricate high-aspect-ratio nanowire grids from amorphous silicon, which can polarize deep ultraviolet radiation, including 193 nm, at >90% efficiency.

    18. A Flexible Bimodal Sensor Array for Simultaneous Sensing of Pressure and Temperature (pages 796–804)

      Nguyen Thanh Tien, Sanghun Jeon, Do-Il Kim, Tran Quang Trung, Mi Jang, , Byeong-Ung Hwang, Kyung-Eun Byun, Jihyun Bae, Eunha Lee, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Zhenan Bao, Nae-Eung Lee and Jong-Jin Park

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302869

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      Diverse signals generated from the sensing elements embedded in flexible electronic skins (e-skins) are typically interfered by strain energy generated through processes such as touching, bending, stretching or twisting. Herein, we demonstrate a flexible bimodal sensor that can separate a target signal from the signal by mechanical strain through the integration of a multi-stimuli responsive gate dielectric and semiconductor channel into the single field-effect transistor (FET) platform.

    19. Iodine Modified Carbon Nitride Semiconductors as Visible Light Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution (pages 805–809)

      Guigang Zhang, Mingwen Zhang, Xinxin Ye, Xiaoqing Qiu, Sen Lin and Xinchen Wang

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303611

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      An optimized and general synthetic strategy based on in-situ iodine modifying of polymeric graphitic carbon nitride is discussed. The as-prepared iodine functionalized g-CN shows enhanced electronic and optical properties, as well as increased photocatalytic activities in an assay of hydrogen evolution.

    20. Three-Dimensional Compressible and Stretchable Conductive Composites (pages 810–815)

      You Yu, Jifang Zeng, Chaojian Chen, Zhuang Xie, Ruisheng Guo, Zhilu Liu, Xuechang Zhou, Yong Yang and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303662

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      Three-dimensional (3D) conductive composites with remarkable flexibility, compressibility, and stretchability are fabricated by solution deposition of thin metal coatings on chemically modified, macroscopically continuous, 3D polyurethane sponges, followed by infiltration of the metallic sponges with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These low-cost conductive composites are used as high-performance interconnects for flexible and stretchable light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, even with severe surface abrasion or cutting.

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