Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

January 1991

Volume 3, Issue 1

Pages fmi–fmi, 8–73

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030101

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Ultrathin layers: Innovation through research (pages 8–9)

      Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030102

      Essay: Wetting, adhesion, biocompatibility, membrane- and sensor applications, lubrication, corrosion resistance, and microlithography are all effects which can be strongly influenced by the molecular architecture of the organic solids involved. The synthetic methods employed and the analytical tools that have been developed for the study of these systems have formed the basis of an interdisciplinary project funded jointly by the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) and Industry. The basis of the project and its aims are introduced and the following articles describe the most recent progress made.

  3. Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Ultrathin organic films: Molecular Architectures for advanced optical, electronic and bio-related systems (pages 10–18)

      Dr. Harald Fuchs, Dr. Holger Ohst and Dr. Werner Prass

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030103

      Review: Organic films a few nanometers thick show considerable potential as tailor-made materials for electrical and optical applications because their properties can be tuned through control of their molecular structure (see figure). Problems to be solved in the synthesis and preparation of the materials and several applications are reviewed.

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  4. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Structural Characterization of Monolayers at the air–water interface (pages 19–24)

      Dr. Dietmar Möbius and Prof. Helmuth Möhwald

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030104

      Review: X-Ray diffraction, fluorescence microscopy, and reflection spectroscopy, are all methods used for the characterization of organic thin films which enable the study of, for example, dipole layers, domain structures, mechanical surface excitations, and the orientation of the hydrocarbon ‘tails’. The methods and their applications, especially in the optimization of monolayer formation and transfer, are reviewed.

  5. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Materials Forum (pages 24–31)

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030105

  6. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Preformed polymers for Langmuir–Blodgett films– molecular concepts (pages 25–31)

      Dr. Frank Embs, Dr. Dirk Funhoff, Dr. André Laschewsky, Dr. Ulrike Licht, Dr. Holger Ohst, Dr. Werner Prass, Prof. Helmut Ringsdorf, Prof. Gerhard Wegner and Dr. Rolf Wehrmann

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030106

      Review: The stability of LB films, a crucial requirement for future applications, can be significantly increased by polymerizing the molecules which make up the film. The various strategies which can be employed for the production of amphiphilic polymers incorporating, for example (see figure), a polymer backbone decorated with flexible hydrophobic side chains and with combined main- and side-chain spacer groups, are reviewed.

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  7. Aritcles

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Optical and surface-analytical methods for the characterization of ultrathin organic films (pages 32–38)

      Dr. Christoph Bubeck and Dr. Dieter Holtkamp

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030107

      Review: The elemental and molecular composition of polymeric organic films can be studied using techniques such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These non-destructive methods also reveal information on depth profiles, molecular organization, and interface effects. The techniques and improvemetns made specifically for the study of monolayers and LB films using vibrational spectroscopy are described.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Protein interactions with ordered lipid films: Specific and unspecific binding (pages 39–46)

      Dr. Michael Ahlers, Dr. Rainer Blankenburg, Heinrich Haas, Dr. Dietmar Möbius, Prof. Helmuth Möhwald, Wolfgang Müller, Prof. Helmut Ringsdorf and Dr. Hans-Ulrich Siegmund

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030108

      Communication: Membrane-bound receptors improtant in biochemistry and medicine can be modeled using mono- and multilayer amphiphilic LB films. Proteins bound to the films (see figure) can possess either enzymatic activity or a specific binding capability that can be used in biological tests. Here, the interactions between polypeptides such as cytochrome C, insulin, and concanavalin A, and several types of films are evaluated.

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    2. Thermostability of polymeric langmuir–blodgett films (pages 46–51)

      Dr. Petra Tippmann-Krayer, Dr. Hans Riegler, Michaela Paudler, Prof. Helmuth Möhwald, Dr. Hans-Ulrich Siegmund, Dr. Johannes Eickmans, Dr. Ude Scheunemann, Ulrike Licht and Dr. Wolfgang Schrepp

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030109

      Communication: LB films stable against desorption up to 250°C have been produced from prepolymerized polyurethanes, polyimides and polyamic acid and studied using optical reflection, microscopy, ellipsometry, ESCA, FT-IR and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Due to their stability, the materials could be used to prepare multilayer films or as matrices for dyes opening up applications in optics.

    3. Characterization and modification of conducting substrates for ultrathin organic films by scanning tunneling microscopy (pages 51–54)

      Stefan Buchholz, Dr. Harald Fuchs and Dr. Jürgen P. Rabe

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030110

      Communication: The structure of an organic film of molecular thickness depends strongly on the surface properties of the underlying substrate. STM is a method which enables a substrate surface to be characterized and controlled as demonstrated in the figure, where the letter “U” etched with an STM tip into a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface is shown. The holes, which are around 5 nm in diameter, could serve as nucleation sites for an organic adsorbate phase.

    4. Amphiphilic dyes for nonlinear optics: Dependence of second harmonic generation on functional group substitution (pages 54–58)

      Dr. Christoph Bubeck, Dr. André Laschewsky, Dr. Donald Lupo, Dieter Neher, Petra Ottenbreit, Wolfgang Paulus, Dr. Werner Prass, Prof. Helmut Ringsdorf and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030111

      Communication: Orientation of chromophores by using the Langmuir-Blodgett film-prepration procedure, to a degree practically impossible to achieve by poling in polymer matrices in an electric field, has held to materials exhibiting the highest values of the second order susceptibility (χ(2)) yet known. The effect of different functional groups in both phenylhydrazone and stryrylpyridinium compounds on both molecular nonlinearity and order in the films the factors which most strongly influence (χ(2)) has been investigated and a thioether substituent is found to increas (χ(2)) significantly.

    5. Photosensitive polymeric amphiphiles: Irradiation-induced structural changes in langmuir–blodgett multilayers (pages 58–63)

      Dr. Thomas Arndt, Lukas Häußling, Prof. Helmut Ringsdorf and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030112

      Communication: Microstructure control in LB films, for example with lithography, is essential for potential applications in electronics. The photochemically induced reaction shown in the figure, where the highly ordered, densely packed film cleaves to form a cationic polymer (right) and a hydrophobic side chain (left) could be exploited to produce domainsized features on flood exposure with UV light.

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  9. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Diamond and diamond-like carbon (pages 64–66)

      Dr. Peter K. Bachmann and Dr. Ute Linz

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030113

      Research News/Diamond Thin Film Technology IIb: The second part of this article continues the description of work presented at a two-week Advanced Study Institute held in the mountains of Tuscany. Topics under discussion were deposition methods, deposition parameters, and applications, including cutting tool inserts, armored IR optics, and X-ray detector windows.

    2. The phase equilibrium diagram of Bi2O3–SrO–CaO–CuO–A tool of processing the high- Tc superconducting bismuth-compounds (pages 67–69)

      Dr. Peter Majewski, Dr. Bernhard Hettich, Dr. Herbert Jaeger and Dr. Klaus Schulze

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030114

      Research News: The preparation of single phase ceramics and the processing of complex compositions is greatly simplified by a comprehensive understanding of the phase equilibria. Exploiting this knowledge has enabled researchers to prepare the 2223 phase of the superconductor Bi2Sr2Can−1CunO2n+4+d in 80% purity. The information which can be gleaned from a phase diagram of a superconducting system is explained and the use of the data in producing materials suited for use in superconducting components is described.

  10. Conference Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Article
    5. Articles
    6. Materials Forum
    7. Articles
    8. Aritcles
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    11. Conference Report
    1. Electrical and optical properties of polymers in canterbury (pages 70–71)

      Philip Pantelis

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030115

      Conference ReportsPhilip Pantelis, of British Telecom, describes a meeting on the electrical and optical properties of polymers held at the University of Kent, UK, and Palffy-Muhoray (Ohio) reports on his visit to a liquid crystals conference in Canada.

    2. Liquid crystals in vancouver (pages 71–73)

      Dr. Peter Palffy-Muhoray

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19910030116

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