Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

February 1993

Volume 5, Issue 2

Pages 78–151

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews
    1. Masthead (page 78)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050201

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews
    1. The federation of european materials societies (f.e.m.s.) (pages 79–80)

      Prof. Gernot Kostorz

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050202

      The coordination of European materials research activities is one of the aims of the Federation of European Materials Societies (f.e.m.s.). The current President of the Federation describes the structure of the organization, which is made up of many national European materials societies, and discusses both planned activities, which include the extension of the successful “EUROMAT” conference series, and long-term future aims.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews
    1. Growth of GaAs and Al GaAs by chemical beam epitaxy—precursor requirements and recent developments (pages 81–87)

      Dr. Anthony C. Jones

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050203

      Semiconductor layers of gallium arsenide and aluminum gallium arsenide are finding increasing application in photonic (solar cells, LEDs, etc.) and microwave (e.g. HEMTs) devices. The ultra-high vacuum technique “chemical beam epitaxy” (see Figure) can be effectively used to produce such layers. The method and its competitors are compared.

    2. Quantized Semiconductor Particles: A novel state of matter for materials science (pages 88–95)

      Dr. Horst Weller

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050204

      The optical, electronic, and catalytic properties of semiconductor Q-particles differ significantly from those of either the bulk materials or of the molecules, as the nanometer-size particles exhibit effects due to quantum confinement. The methods of preparing these materials, their characterization, their properties, and their applications are reviewed, and the requirements for future progress, even the extension of the work to nanometer-sized metal particles, are discussed.

    3. Mechanical Alloying of Titanium-Base Alloys (pages 96–106)

      Prof. Challipalli Suryanarayana and Dr. Francis H. Froes

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050205

      Nanostructured crystalline materials (see Figure) exhibit a unique combination of properties due to the fact that a large fraction of the atoms is located at the grain boundaries. High strength and hardness, and high diffusion rates can be achieved using mechanical alloying. The process and its application to titanium alloys are reviewed.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews
    1. In situ photopolymerized, oriented liquid-crystalline diacrylates with high thermal conductivities (pages 107–109)

      Dr. Albert Hammerschmidt, Prof. Kurt Geibel and Dr. Franz Strohmer

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050206

      Long-range-oriented liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) can exhibit anisotropic mechanical, optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. The macroscopic orientation of LCPs proceeds relatively slowly and incompletely compared to low molecular weight liquid crystals. Here, the photopolymerization of thin films of nematically ordered LC monomers is shown to lead to oriented LCPs with high thermal conductivities.

    2. Extended homologues of tetrathioalkyl-tetrathiafulvalenes (pages 109–112)

      Prof. Klaus Müllen, Dr. Ute Scherer, Dr. Yong-Jia Shen, Martin Adam, Werner Bietsch and Dr. Jost Ulrich Von Schütz

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050207

      Tetrathiafulvalene radical cation salts are organic-based conductors where an increase of the dimensionality of the conducting process leads to a stabilization of the metallic state. Donor molecules of the type shown in the Figure should increase this dimensionality by extending the π conjugation of the system. The synthesis of the new donor and the electrical properties of its salts are presented.

    3. Connectivity of pores and structural units in zeolites, pillared clays and nanoparticle assemblies (pages 113–114)

      Dr. Staffan Hansen

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050208

      Solids of the zeolite type combine pores of uniform dimensions with large void fractions and are important in applications such as catalysts and as host materials for intercalation. The regular pores influence the physical and chemical properties of the solid while the zero- to three-dimensional connectivity of the pore system can determine the electronic properties of host–guest compounds. Here, a simple new method for the classification of these solids is presented, which also leads to the prediction of new classes of microporous materials.

    4. A model for the successful growth of polycrystalline films of CuInSe2 by multisource physical vacuum evaporation (pages 114–119)

      Reiner Klenk, Thomas Walter, Hans-Werner Schock and Dr. David Cahen

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050209

      Solar cells based on CuInSe2 polycrystalline thin films (see Figure) are one of the few realistic alternatives to polycrystalline Si for practical conversion of solar energy into electricity. A model explaining the important role of the secondary copper chalcogenide phases in the deposition of the CuInSe2 films by physical vacuum evaporation is presented.

    5. Quasi-perfect polar alignment of nonlinear chromophores in a crystalline H-bonded guest–host structure: 2-Amino-5-nitropyridinium-L-monohydrogentartrate (pages 120–124)

      Dr. Joseph Zyss, Dr. René Masse, Dr. Muriel Bagieu-Beucher and Jean Pierre Levy

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050210

      The nonlinear optical properties of organo-mineral salts based on 2-amino-5-nitropyridine (2A5NP) and tartrate anions are presented. The mineral anion provides improved structural cohesion compared to van der Waals or hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals while the organic species is responsible for the nonlinear optical activity. 2A5NP is known to exhibit high molecular hyperpolarizability and blue-shifted absorption relative to p-nitro- aniline-like molecules.

    6. Covalent binding of glucose oxidase to functionalized polyazulenes. The first application of polyazulenes in amperometric biosensors (pages 124–126)

      Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann, Johanna Huber, Albert Mirlach and Prof. Jörg Daub

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050211

      The covalent binding of enzymes to the surface of electrodes has been shown to lead to amperometric enzyme electrodes with fast response characteristics. New C-2 substituted azulenes offer a viable alternative to the use of pyrrole derivatives as electrode materials as they easily form thin films of conducting polymeric material on electrochemical doping (see Figure).

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews
    1. Mesoporous inorganic solids (pages 127–132)

      Dr. Peter Behrens

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050212

      With pore sizes in the range of 20–500 Å mesoporous materials are of use for extending zeolite-type chemistry, which is based on materials with a pore size of around 7 Å, to larger molecules. The pores can be produced by pillaring (the propping of layered materials) or by extending the template method used to produce zeolites. The new, ultra-large-pore materials recently presented by researchers from Mobil Oil Research are described and their production and application discussed

    2. Fluorescent sensors and color-change indicators for molecules (pages 132–134)

      Akihiko Ueno

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050213

      Cyclodextrins substituted with a fluorescent group can be employed as molecular sensors. The Figure shows how the fluorophore usually occupies the hydrophobic interior of the cyclodextrin host. On addition of a guest, the fluorophore is displaced from the cavity, resulting in a change in its spectral response. Recent progress with this and related molecular sensors is discussed.

    3. Optically transparent nanometal composite membranes (pages 135–136)

      Dr. Colby A. Foss Jr., Dr. Gabor L. Hornyak, Dr. Jon A. Stockert and Prof. Charles R. Martin

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050214

      Small metal particles embedded in an optically transparent matrix result in a composite material which can be transparent in the infrared and into the visible (metals are usually optically opaque). The nanoparticles of the metal are produced by the “template” method, where the material is synthesized within the pores of a nanoporous membrane (see Figure).

    4. A new way of making diamond? A new way of publishing? (pages 137–140)

      Dr. Peter K. Bachmann

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050215

      Scientists from Penn State's Materials Research Laboratory recently disclosed to the press what they claim is a radically innovative approach to the synthesis of diamond. Peter Bachmann of Philips examines the science involved and comments on the way it was made public.

    5. Science publishing needs a reformation (pages 141–143)

      Prof. Rustum Roy

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050216

      In a response to the previous article, Rustum Roy, Founding Director of the Penn State Materials Research Laboratory, explains the novelty of the new method of diamond synthesis, and expands on his claim that science publishing, especially the way new research results are refereed or otherwise assessed, needs a reformation.

  6. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Book Reviews

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