Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

May 1993

Volume 5, Issue 5

Pages 329–402

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Masthead (page 329)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050501

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. European polymer science—future research strategies (pages 330–333)

      Prof. Ronald Koningsveld and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050502

      Research development on a European scale is a recognized requirement if European efforts in many areas of science and technology are to keep pace with competition from overseas. Polymer science is no exception. At a recent European Polymer Federation Conference a round-table discussion was held on “Eurotopics” such as Optoelectronics, Supramolecular Architectures, Computer-Aided Polymer Research, Processing, Combustion, and Colloids. here, progress is summarized and future Europe-wide activities presented.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Conducting Polymers Intercalated in Layered Solids (pages 334–340)

      Prof. Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050503

      Inorganic–organic composite systems (e.g. see figure) with controlled electrical and optoelectronic properties are of current interest for applications including electrochromic displays, batteries, membranes, and sensors. The various methods of intercalation of the organic guests into the inorganic hosts, and the property profiles of the materials based on the intercalation of conducting polymers in layered solids are reviewed.

    2. Organic Materials for Third-Order Nonlinear Optics (pages 341–358)

      Dr. Hari Singh Nalwa

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050504

      Fullerenes, charge-transfer complexes, conjugated polymers, composites and liquid crystals are among the organic materials which have been shown to have promise for third-order nonlinear applications. The physical background of the phenomena is discussed before the various classes of materials are presented and their structures and properties correlated. It is shown that organic materials exhibit high figures of merit, high optical damage thresholds, ultrafast response times, and architectural flexibility.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Effects of surface topology and highly anisotropic polymer LB films on liquid crystal alignment (pages 359–364)

      Dr. Masayoshi Suzuki, Dr. Andreas Ferencz, Shigeki Iida, Dr. Volker Enkelmann and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050505

      Controlling molecular orientation, especially in liquid crystals, is of particular current interest for example in the development of display technology. Here it is shown, through studying various LCs (e.g. PCH5 or Oil red O, see figure) and orientation techniques, that the alignment of the polymer chains in the alignment layer plays the most important role in controlling the orientation of the liquid crystals.

    2. Novel colorless composite materials for nonlinear optics (pages 364–367)

      Dr. Christer B. Aakeröy, Dr. Nazar E. Azoz, Dr. Munteser Kadim, Prof. Kenneth R. Seddon and Lynne Trowbridge

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050506

      Colorless SHG-active composite materials could have great potential in nonlinear optics applications, for example in optoelectronic devices. The composite materials are produced using a novel solution-based process, followed by poling through solvent evaporation along a thermal gradient, enabling the variation of the guests and hosts in order to tune the properties of the materials. The new method provides a versatile alternative to the thermal gradient zone melting technique.

    3. Molecular accessibility in interpenetrating organometallic polymer networks (IOPNs): An ESR evaluation (pages 367–369)

      Prof. Benedetto Corain, Prof. Carlo Corvaja, Dr. Silvano Lora, Prof. Giancarlo Palma and Dr. Marco Zecca

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050507

      Interpenetrating organometallic polymer networks can be seen as a new type of supported metal catalysts. They are prepared by the generation of a cross-linked organometallic copolymer (see figure) inside the macro- and microporous domains of organic and inorganic supports. Here, ESR analysis demonstrates that the microporous domains of such materials are accessible to molecules of substantial size.

    4. Intercalation of water-soluble polymers in V2O5 xerogel (pages 369–372)

      Yu-Ju Liu, Don C. DeGroot, Jon L. Schindler, Prof. Carl R. Kannewurf and Prof. Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050508

      The direct intercalation of polymer molecules into inorganic hosts has proved difficult due to the dimensions of the polymers. Here, new polymer/V2O5 intercalation compounds based on the inclusion of water-soluble polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, polypropyleneglycol, and methyl-cellulose are reported and their physical properties discussed. This approach further facilitates the production of inclusion compounds with controlled mechanical, optical, and electrical properties.

    5. Microwave absorbing materials based on conducting polymers (pages 373–377)

      Dr. Laurent Olmedo, Dr. Patrick Hourquebie and Dr. Franck Jousse

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050509

      Blends of conducting and insulating polymers (e.g. polypyrrole/PVC, see figure) offer distinct weight advantages over the materials, such as dispersions of carbon black or metallic powders in polymer matrices, traditionally used in microwave absorption applications. Polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophene have been examined, their performance parameters compared, and requirements for further development of this technology dicussed.

    6. (Me5C5)SiH3 and (Me5C5)2SiH2 as precursors for low-temperature remote plasma-enhanced CVD of thin Si3N4 and SiO2 films (pages 377–380)

      Jürgen Dahlhaus, Prof. Peter Jutzi, Dr. Hubert-Joachim Frenck and Dr. Wilhelm Kulisch

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050510

      Silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silica (SiO2) thin films are of interest for applications in microelectronics and optics. Non-hazardous alternatives to silane (SiH4) as the silicon precursor in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of these materials are in attractive target for research. It is shown that pentamethylcyclopentadiene-substituted dilanes offer the opportunity to tailor precursors for particular CVD requirements.

    7. Poly[(silylene)diacetylene]–metal oxide composites: A new approach to SiC–metal nitride ceramics (pages 380–383)

      Prof. Robert Corriu, Philippe Gerbier, Prof. Christian Guérin and Dr. Bernard Henner

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050511

      Precursors to high-performance ceramics, based on poly(silylene)diacetylene-metal oxide composites see figure, are reported. On thermal conversion under nitrogen, carboreduction and nitridation of the encapsulated metal oxide take place, resulting in the formation of SiC-metal nitride ceramics with well-defined composition profiles.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. DNA technology in chip construction (pages 384–386)

      Prof. Ernesto Di Mauro and Prof. Cornelis P. Hollenberg

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050512

      The use of photolithography of produce 3 nm features sounds like a pipe dream. But is it? The circuit size achievable with X-ray lithography cannot be pushed below 0.25 μm due to limiting lens technology. Now it has been shown that the genetic material DNA can be used to form micro-photomasks with features 100 times smaller than those on current silicon chips. The construction of nucleic and networks, their conversion into electron-conducting networks, and their use in photolithography are described.

    2. Fullerene-like nanocrystals of tungsten disulfide (pages 386–388)

      Dr. Reshef Tenne, Dr. Lev Margulis and Dr. Gary Hodes

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050513

      Polyhedral structures akin to fullerenes, some exhibiting ‘Russian doll’-type structures, have recently been prepared in layered chalcogenide materials such as WS2, (see figure). The materials are expected to exhibit novel electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. The method of producing the structures is presented, and the possibility of extending the approach to high-Tc superconductors is discussed.

    3. Strengthening glasses and ceramics (pages 389–391)

      Graham Partridge

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050514

      Cooking pots and nuclear reactors are two widely different applications of glasses and ceramics. This breadth of utility requires materials whose properties can be tuned over a very wide range. Tuning can be achieved by varying the composition of the materials or the processing parameters or both. Strength and fracture toughness are among the most important properties of these materials in considering them for applications. Factors influencing these properties are discussed.

    4. Nanomachining and manipulation with the atomic force microscope (pages 392–394)

      Prof. Charles M. Lieber and Dr. Yun Kim

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050515

      The ability to manipulate matter on the nanometer scale is a requirement for the full development of nanotechnology. Scanning probe microscopies show great promise in this respect and recent progress in the area is discussed. for example surface modification, pattern formation (e.g. the 150 nm high Harvard University symbol in the figure), and the manipulation of nanostructures.

    5. Writing with light on polyaniline films (pages 394–396)

      Prof. Hiroshi Yoneyama

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050516

      Polyanniline films containing TiO2 particles have been shown to be an effective medium for photo-induced electrochromism. This effect has been utilized to achieve image storage and writing with laser light in the polyaniline films. The production of the films, their applications, and directions for future work, including the incorporation of semiconductor particles into the conducting polymer, are discussed.

  6. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Materials Forum (pages 396–397)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050517

  7. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews

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