Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

July/August 1993

Volume 5, Issue 7-8

Pages 501–590

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. Masthead (page 501)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050701

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. SERC–RUSTI: A new approach to strategic research and technology transfer (pages 502–507)

      Prof. David T. Clark

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050702

      Technology transfer is a crucial step in research and development, and in many cases it is the justification for continued funding of basic research programs. Several models have been proposed for nurturing the conversion of basic ideas into commercially interesting work, examples being the German Fraunhofer Institutes. Here, a new British solution is presented which is based on a cooperation of the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) and, primarily, ICI.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy—recent applications in materials science (pages 508–519)

      Raul J. M. da Fonseca, Dr. Lahouari Ferdj-Allah, Dr. Gilles Despaux, Dr. Amar Boudour, Dr. Laurent Robert and Dr. Jacques Attal

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050703

      A convergent beam of ultrasonic waves at very high frequencies can be used in an acoustic microscope to achieve resolutions of the order of 1 μm at depths of up to 1 mm. One application of the acoustic microscope are welding tests (e.g. the Figure which shows an Si/Mo structure welded at 475°C).

    2. Optical Nonlinearity:Phenomena, applications, and materials (pages 520–545)

      Dr. Wenjiang Nie

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050704

      Rectification, inversion, modulation, harmonic generation, and heterodyning are all effects well known in the world of electronics as the essential properties of practical devices. These, and many other, related, effects have applications in optics, made possible by te development of the laser, a source of intense monochromatic light. In this article, from the viewpoint of the materials scientist, the basic phenomena and their applications are presented before and various materials in use in nonlinear optics are discussed.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. Synthesis of some higher thienylpyrrole oligomers (pages 547–551)

      Dr. Renée E. Niziurski-Mann and Prof. Michael P. Cava

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050705

      Mixed thiophene–pyrole oligomers containing four to seven heterocyclic rings (see Figure) are reported which are of interest in teh modeling of the structure and the study of teh properties of polymeric organic metals.

    2. Thiophene oligomers as polythiophene models 3. conductive and capacitive behavior of end-capped oligothienyls as thin films. A contribution to the conduction mechanism and to the faradaic–capacitive debate of conducting polymers (pages 551–554)

      Dr. Gianni Zotti, Dr. Gilberto Schiavon, Dr. Anna Berlin and Prof. Giorgio Pagani

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050706

      The real nature of the mechanism of bipolaron conduction in conducting polymers and the discussion as to whether the charging–discharging currents in these materials are of a capacitive or a redox nature are central questions in conducting polymer research. Here, a number of methyl endcapped thiophene oligomers are studied using cyclic voltammetry in order to provide some of the answers.

    3. A new method for the production of Mg–Ni hydrogen storage materials (pages 554–555)

      Prof. Jinping Li, Dr. Xinfang Ji, Dr. Feng Wu and Dr. Guoqing Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050707

      Hydrogen storage materials based on magnesium alloys are interesting because they exhibit light weight, a large hydrogen capacity, and have a low cost. The Figure shows Mg2Ni which has been produced using powder metallurgical methods. It is found to have an attractive property profile compared to material prepared using induction melting.

    4. Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation (pages 556–559)

      Hans Anneser, Franz Feiner, Andreas Petri, Prof. Christoph Bräuchle, Horst Leigeber, Dr. Hans-Peter Weitzel, Dr. Franz-Heinrich Kreuzer, Oliver Haak and Prof. Peter Boldt

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050708

      Poling nonlinear optical materials using light is reported. The new method, which combines a light- and an electrical-field effect and is effective on glassy solid-state materials, could in future be integrated into standard lithographic technology to produce, for example, nonlinear optical waveguides by irradiating through a mask when the electric field is switched on.

    5. Novel amorphous molecular materials: The starburst molecule 1,3,5-tris[N-(4-diphenyl- aminophenyl)phenylamino]benzene (pages 559–561)

      Wataru Ishikawa, Kisaburo Noguchi, Yoshiyuki Kuwabaru and Prof. Yasuhiko Shirota

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050709

      Photo- and electroactive amorphous molecular materials are attractive for use in electronics, for example in pn heterojunction-type photovoltaic devices or in electroluminescent devices. The title compound (based on that in the Figure) exhibits a high glass transition temperature, hardly crystallizing even above this temperature making it especially suitable for electronics applications.

    6. Low-temperature synthesis of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) by the sulfonium salt route (pages 561–564)

      Dr. Raul O. Garay, Ullrich Baier, Dr. Christoph Bubeck and Prof. Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050710

      Poly(p-phenylenevinylene), PPV, is one of the most promising candidates among the conjugated polymers for use in all-optical signal processing or as the active layer in light emitting diodes. Here, a low-temperature route to PPV is reported which makes the synthesis compatible with many of the thermoplastic polymers used in microelectronics and optics. The applicability of this route to device fabrication is also addressed.

    7. Photosensitized cross-linking of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers based on copoly(glutamate)s (pages 564–568)

      Dr. Shigeki Iida, Dr. Mattias Schaub, Dr. Margit Schulze and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050711

      Rod-like polymers of overall cylindrical shape dressed with a skin of flexible short side chains have been shown to be versatile building blocks for supramolecular structures. This paper describes the production of “molecular composites” based on such rigid rods, the mesoscopic structure of which is shown in the Figure.

    8. A novel supramolecular device with a tunable absorption spectrum (pages 568–570)

      Prof. Normand Voyer and François Maltais

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050712

      Supramolecular systems whose spectroscopic properties are influenced by the recognition of specific guest species are of interest in the development of molecular probes and optical sensors. Here, peptidic frameworks and metalloporphyrins are combined to develop a new way of signalling recognition phenomena and molecular-based devices with tunable spectroscopic properties.

    9. Generation of optical evanescent waves in vacuum-deposited thin films of α-oligothiophenes (pages 570–573)

      Dr. Harald Knobloch, Dr. Denis Fichou, Dr. Wolfgang Knoll and Dr. Hiroyuki Sasabe

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050713

      The performance of oligothiophene-based field-effect transistors is thought to be dependent on the nature of the metal/semiconductor/insulator interfaces. The observation of evanescent optical waves in thin films of, for example, α-6T (see Figure) provides a non-destructive probe of the charge transfer processes taking place at these interfaces.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. Electrochemical processing of electrically conductive polymer fibers (pages 575–576)

      Dr. Shulong Li, Dr. Christopher W. Macosko and Prof. Henry S. White

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050714

      Macroscopic fibers of conducting polymers could be woven into lightweight antistatic fabrics, used as electrodes in batteries, or employed in light-emitting displays. For this to be possible the fibers will need to exhibit high strength and flexibility. Here, an electrochemical process is presented which is based on the use of hydrodynamic forces to control the direction of polymer deposition. The process also has potential for application to other organic conductors and superconducting oxides.

    2. Semiconductor nanowhiskers (pages 577–580)

      Masamitsu Yazawa, Masanari Koguchi, Akiko Muto and Dr. Kenji Hiruma

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050715

      Self-assembled nanostructures based on indium arsenide whiskers grown using molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (see Figure) could be of use as lead wires, connecting devices in integrated nanodevices. The procedure employed to produce these features in a controlled way is described, and the possibilities of developing nanowhisker heterojunctions discussed.

    3. A Few-Monolayer Organic Rectifier (pages 580–582)

      Dr. A. Scott Martin and Prof. J. Roy Sambles

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050716

      An electrical building block whose properties depend solely on the molecular structure of its constituents, for example a rectifier, has been a research goal in molecular electronics for some time. The ultimate aim is to be able to address one molecule, and the rectifier described here, based on a few monolayers of C16H33[BOND]γQ3CNQ is a step in the right direction.

    4. White light emission from C60 molecules confined in molecular cage materials (pages 583–585)

      Prof. Bruce Hamilton, Dr. J. S. Rimmer, Dr. M. Anderson and Dr. D. Leigh

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050717

      Confining C60 in the cages within a zeolite (see Figure) results in the modification of the optical properties of the fullerene. This possibly results from a weak interaction of the C60 with the wall of the zeolite which is, however, strong enough to perturb the electronic structure of the C60 resulting in otherwise forbidden transitions (e.g. white light emission) being observed.

    5. Conducting polymers—materials of commerce (pages 587–589)

      Dr. Joel S. Miller

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050718

      Are conducting polymers commercially viable? In the first part of a two-part article the attributes of conducting polymers which make them attractive for the development of new products are reviewed. In the second part (next month) products based on conducting polymers will be discussed in detail.

  6. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    1. Materials Forum (pages 589–590)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19930050719

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