Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

September 1994

Volume 6, Issue 9

Pages fmi–fmi, 629–706

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060901

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Polymers and the Environment— current problems and future research (pages 629–634)

      Prof. Gerhard Wegner and Dr. Kurt Wagemann

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060902

      Is waste disposal by physical recycling always the best solution? Taking plastics as an example, the various alternatives—physical recycling, chemical recycling, thermal recycling, biologically degradable polymers—and the problems connected with them—separation of mixtures, additives, the need to keep biodegradable and other polymers separate—are examined. Topics for future research are proposed.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Molecular Magnetism: A basis for new materials (pages 635–645)

      Prof. Dante Gatteschi

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060903

      Molecular magnetism, which includes the study of organic magnets, spin cross-over, and large spin clusters, has recently begun to concentrate on the design and synthesis of new magnetic compounds. Simple molecules, based on nitroxides and nitronyl nitroxides (see Figure), have been found to order ferromagnetically. The field is reviewed, stressing the possibility of combining properties.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Kinetics of the intercalation of cations into MnPS3 using real time in situ x-ray diffraction (pages 646–648)

      Dr. John S. O. Evans and Dr. Dermot O'hare

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060904

      Intercalation in transition metal hexathiohypodiphosphates (MPS3), which proceeds by a unique ion-exchange route, is not well understood because it is difficult to follow the process in real time. Using a recently developed technique that allows the X-ray diffraction pattern of a suspension of an inorganic host lattice in a solution of guest molecules to be recorded in as little as 10 s, the intercalation of cationic species into MnPS3 has been investigated. The analysis of the kinetics at various temperatures is presented.

    2. Scanning probe microscopy study of the incommensurate modulation and surface defects in the layered telluride TaGe0.355Te2 (pages 649–654)

      Dr. Hardy Bengel, Prof. Hans-Joachim Cantow, Dr. Sergei N. Magonov, Dr. Laure Monconduit, Dr. Michel Evain, Dr. Weigen Liang and Prof. Myung-Hwan Whangho

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060905

      The detection of atomic-size defects by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is demonstrated. For example, the dark grooves in the image of the surface of the incommensurate layered telluride phase TaGe0.355Te2 (see Figure) indicate a defect. The origin of this incommensurate structure of layered tellurides is established and it is shown that high applied forces enhance the image contrast in AFM.

    3. Channel-to-channel rearrangements of host lattices in clathrate crystals induced by guest exchange via Gas-solid contacts (pages 654–656)

      Naoto Hayashi, Dr. Yasuhiro Mazaki and Prof. Keiji Kobayashi

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060906

      Host-lattice rearrangements in clathrates as a result of sorptive gas exchange are reported for the first time. Unlike any other clathrates, those produced by the recrystallization of bis(9-hydroxyfluoren-9-yl)thieno-[3,2-b]thiohene from ethanol and n-propanol exhibit guest-responsive channel-type cavities: their structure differs for the guest ethanol and propanol. The structures, lattice rearrangements and guest displacement of the system are discussed.

    4. Phenyl groups as molecular fasteners: Phenyltelluro-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes (pages 656–659)

      Dr. Vladimir Y. Khodorkovsky, Dr. Changsheng Wang, Prof. James Y. Becker, Dr. Arkady Ellern, Lev Shapiro and Prof. Joel Bernstein

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060907

      Phenyltelluro–tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives, for example those shown in the Figure, are reported to exhibit one-component two-dimensional networks of shortened molecular interactions and electrical conductivities that are unsually high for neutral organic molecules. Evidence for stacking of TTF groups—despite the bulky phenyl groups—is presented.

    5. Crystal structure of α,ω-bis(triisopropylsilyl)-sexithiophene: Unusual conjugated chain distortion induced by interchain steric effects (pages 660–663)

      Dr. Abderrahim Yassar, Dr. Francis Garnier, Dr. Françoise Deloffre, Dr. Gilles Horowitz and Dr. Louis Ricard

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060908

      The structure of a sexithiophene derivative end-substituted by two bulky triisopropylsilyl groups has been determined in an attempt to better understand the relationship between structure and the electronic and optical properties of polythiopenes. The synthesis and structural characterizaation of derivative are descried in detail and the unusual crystal system that involves staggered parallel arrays of molecules and a strong deviation from coplanarity of the π- conjugated backbone is discussed.

    6. Paramagnetic metal-containing mesogenic polyazomethines (pages 663–667)

      Prof. Pablo J. Alonso, Jesús I. Martínez, Dr. Luis Oriol, Dr. Milagros Piñol and Dr. José Luis Serrano

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060909

      Paramagnetic moieties in mesogenic polymers can provide valuable information about macromolecular orientation. The results of EPR and polarized light investigations on three polyazomethines bearing hydroxyl groups and containing paramagnetic centers are reported. The micrograph in the Figure shows the threaded texture of a polyazomethine, derived from naphthalenediamine, containing oxovanadium(IV) centers.

    7. EPR study of a chiral metallomesogen: Bis{N-[4″-((2S)-2-chloropropoxy)phenyl], 4-(4′-n- decyloxybenzoyloxy)salicylaldimine}copper(II) (pages 667–670)

      Prof. Pablo J. Alonso, Dr. Mercedes Marcos, Jesús I. Murtinez, Dr. José Luis Serrano and Dr. Teresa Sierra

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060910

      A paramagnetic chiral smectic C material has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for the first time. EPR, in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy, provides information about the molecular arrangements in the different phases. The spectra of a chiral smectic C liquid crystal copper(II) complex derived from a chiral Schiff base are discussed, which reveal polymorphic transformations that may be related to the asymmetry of the chiral molecules.

    8. Voltammetric studies of solution and solid-state properties of monodisperse oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s (pages 671–674)

      Dr. Klaus Meerholz, Heike Gregorius, Klaus Müllen and Prof. Jürgen Heinze

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060911

      Four well-defined monodisperse oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s (see Figure, n = 3 to 6) have been used in solid-state voltammetric investigations as model compounds for the related polymer. The redox behavior in solution and in the solid state is compared and an interpretation of the controversial “current plateau” proposed.

    9. Plasma induced chemical vapor deposition of Zr(C,B) from CpZr(BH4)3 (Cp [DOUBLE BOND] C5H5⊖) (pages 674–676)

      Dr. Silvia Reich, Dr. Johannes Messelhäuser, Prof. Harald Suhr, Prof. Gerhard Erker and Cornelia Fritze

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060912

      The hardness of metal borides makes them suitable for applications as corrosion resistant and, in combination with other materials, as hard coatngs for cutting tools, for example. The plasma induced chemical vapor deposition of Zr(C,B) from the precursor CpZr(BH4)3, where Cp is C5H5⊖, is described and the results of an investigation of the dependence of the deposition rete and the film characteristics on the deposition parameters, e.g. the carrier gas and the substrate temperature, are presented.

    10. Thermally stable multilared organic electroluminescent devices using novel starburst molecules, 4,4′,4″-Tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine (TCTA) and 4,4′,4″-Tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA), as hole-transport materials (pages 677–679)

      Prof. Yoshiyuki Kuwabara, Hiromitsu Ogawa, Dr. Hiroshi Inada, Dr. Naoki Noma and Dr. Yasuhiko Shirota

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060913

      Organic electroluminescent devices with improced thermal stability and good performance characteristics are reported. The hole-transport material is a novel π-electron “starburst” molecule, TCTA (see Figure), whose glass-transition temperature is increased by the introduction of a structurally rigid moiety.

    11. An open-framework zinc phosphate with Zn[BOND]O[BOND]Zn linkages (pages 679–680)

      Dr. Tianyou Song, Prof. Michael B. Hursthouse, Dr. Jiesheng Chen, Dr. Jianing Xu, Prof. K. M. Abdul Malik, Dr. Richard H. Jones, Prof. Ruren Xu and Prof. John Meurig Thomas Sir

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060914

      Open framework crystalline solids have great potential as catalysts and absorbers and for many other applications in materials science. The synthesis and structural characterization of a new zinc phosphate prepared from a predominantly non-aqueous system are described. The unique features of the compound, which has the empirical formula Zn4(PO4)3(H2O)(C2H5NH3), such as three-coordinated oxygen atoms and a ratio of Zn to P greater than 1, are discussed.

    12. Synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties, and spin densities of a triazole-nitronyl-nitroxide radical (pages 681–683)

      Dr. Yu Pei, Prof. Olivier Kahn, Dr. Michael A. Aebersold, Dr. Lahcène Ouahab, Françoise Le Berre, Dr. Luca Pardi and Dr. Jean Louis Tholence

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060915

      A triazole-nitronyl-nitroxide radical (see Figure) combining a 1,2,4-triazole function—which plays an important role in the field of spin transition compounds—and a nitronyl nitroxide radical— a magnetic building blick used in organic magnets — is reported. Its synthesis, crystyal structure, magnetic properties and spin densities are described.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. One-step preparation of double-walled microspheres (pages 684–687)

      Dr. Kathleen J. Pekarek, Dr. Jules S. Jacob and Prof. Edith Mathiowitz

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060916

      Multilayered microspheres for drug delivery can be produced by several methods, but most techniques involve several stages and often lead to layers of non-uniform thickness. The solcent evaporation method of producing double-layered microspheres described here svoids these difficulties, a single step yielding micrespheres consisting of an inner core of polymer surrounded by a second polymer. The theory is presented and the characterization of the microspheres discussed.

    2. Conductiong polymer connections for molecular devices (pages 688–692)

      Prof. Michael J. Sailor and Corrine L. Curtis

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060917

      Ways of connecting molecular devices will be needed if the ideas of molecular electronics are ever to be realized. The potential of conducting polymer nanowires for this purpose is discussed and illustrated with the case of poly(3-alkylthiophene), which can be made to connect two Pt wires by forming dendrites between them (see Figure).

    3. The tomographic atom probe: New dimensions in materials analysis (pages 695–698)

      Dr. Bernard Deconoihout, Dr. Sylvain Chambreland and Prof. Didier Blavette

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060918

      The tomographic atom prob (TAP) is the most advanced of the three-dimemsional atom probes currently in use. Atom probes are unique in that both the lateral and the depth resolution are high. The genera; development of atom probes and the principle of operation ot the TAP, in which the sample is field evaporated atomic loayer by atomic layer, are outlined. The analysis of a nickel base superalloy is given as an example of an application in metallurgy.

  6. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. Materials Forum (page 698)

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060919

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews
    1. High coordination number calamitic metallomesogens (pages 699–701)

      Dr. Duncan W. Bruce

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060920

      Metal-containing liquid crystals are a rapidly expanding field. Approavhes to the design and synthesis of high coordination number complexes with liquid crystal properties, such as the mesomorphic ferrocenes in the for example orthometallated imines, are discussed.

    2. Continuous polymer fractionation (pages 701–704)

      Prof. Bernhard A. Wolf

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19940060921

      Continuous polymer fractionation(CPF) has been developed to provede access to large amounts of well-defined fractions where it is impossible to synthesize polymers with a narrow molecular weight distribution. The principle of CPF and some details of its implementation are presented. Examples of fractionation are reported, together with problems that can arise and their solutions. As there is a widespread need for uniform, it is anticipated that CPF will become a routine operation.

  8. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Research News
    9. Book Reviews

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