Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

March 1996

Volume 8, Issue 3

Pages fmi–fmi, 201–261

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080301

  2. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. The impact of interdisciplinary materials science (pages 201–202)

      Dr. Peter Gregory

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080302

      How “hot” is published research? The Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), an independent organization from the USA, follows the citation behavior of scientists on a regular basis. Which journals do they cite? How often? Which journals are cited the most? Which papers in which journals are cited immediately on publication? The ISI has recently published its evaluation for 1994. The performance of Advanced Materials is discussed.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Dimeric Tetrathiafulvalenes: New electron donors (pages 203–211)

      Prof. Tetsuo Otsubo, Prof. Yoshio Aso and Dr. Kazuo Takimiya

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080303

      Organic conductors based on new classes of dimeric TTFs (e.g., see figure) are reviewed. The complexes have structures in some cases which are determined by inter-TTF transannular interactions, leading to stretched, folded, and sandwich arrangements. These multi-TTF materials have potential applications in the development of molecular electronic devices based on multi-stage redox systems.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Two novel thermotropic liquid crystalline substituted oligo(p-phenylene-vinylene)s: Single crystal X-ray determination of an all-trans oligomeric PPV (pages 212–214)

      Richard E. Gill, Auke Meetsma and Prof. Georges Hadziioannou

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080304

      Conjugated polymers, for example PPV and polythiophene, show great potential for applications in thin-film microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. An understanding of structure–property relationships in these materials is therefore of great importance. Here, the successful preparation of two novel substituted five-ring oligo-PPVs and the first crystallographic characterization of a single-crystal all-trans PPV oligomer are reported.

    2. Post-polymerization functionalization of conducting polymers: Novel poly(alkylthiophene)s substituted with easily. Replaceable activated ester groups (pages 214–218)

      Prof. Peter Baüerle, Markus Hiller, Stefan Scheib, Dr. Moritz Sokolowski and Prof. Eberhard Umbach

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080305

      One-step post-polymerization-functionalization of polythiophene is reported. Using the new method presented here a large variety of amines carrying, for example, sterically demanding or electronically sensitive functional groups can be attached to conducting-polymer-modified electrodes even under aqueous conditions. The Figure shows the starting material which is polymerized then functionalized. The following paper in this issue presents the use of these materials in the development of amperometric biosensors.

    3. Amperometric biosensors produced by immobilization of redox enzymes at polythiophene-modified electrode surfaces (pages 219–222)

      Markus Hiller, Christine Kranz, Johanna Huber, Prof. Peter Bäuerle and Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080306

      The use of polythiophene films for the immobilization of enzymes at electrodes is shown to have advantages over other conducting polymer films. Two methods by which the enzymes can be immobilized—entrapment and covalent immobilization at the surface—are described and compared. The improved stability of polythiophene against oxidation in ambient environments is expected to enable the construction of biosensors with improved sensor characteristics and lifetime.

    4. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by specialized macromolecules in biological and synthetic precipitates (pages 222–226)

      Joanna Aizenberg, Prof. Lia Addadi, Prof. Stephen Weiner and Prof. Gretchen Lambert

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080307

      Composite structures in which amorphous and crystalline phases coexist are formed by some organisms. The spicules of the sponge Clathrina are shown to be composed of a crystalline calcitic core and an outer layer of amorphous CaCO3 (see figure). The latter material, normally a highly unstable mineral, is stabilized in vitro by macromolecules extracted from the outer sponge spicule layer. The combination of crystalline and stabilized amorphous phases may have important implications for materials applications.

    5. Donor–acceptor substituted tetraethynylethenes (pages 226–231)

      Dr. Rik R. Tykivinski, Martin Schreiber, Paul Seiler, Prof. François Diederich and Dr. Volker Gramlich

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080308

      A comprehensive series of donor/acceptor substituted tetraethynylethenes has been prepared by palladium-catalyzed acetylenic coupling. The conjugated C-atom scaffolds of these remarkably stable compounds are planar, including the substituted phenyl rings. Trends in electronic, optical, and structural properties as a function of degree and pattern of substitution are reported and the effectiveness of intramolecular donor–acceptor interactions via linear conjugation paths and cross-conjugation paths compared.

    6. Structure-property relationships in nonlinear optical tetraethynylethenes (pages 231–234)

      Christian Bosshard, Rolf Spreiter, Peter Günter, Rik R. Trkwinski, Martin Schreiber and François Diederich

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080309

      The third-order nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted tetraethynylethenes (see figure and also the preceding contribution) are presented with special emphasis on the structure-property relationships and the effect of conjugation paths on the optical nonlinearity. In one single class of materials the influence of donor-acceptor substitution as well as of full two-dimensional conjugation on the third-order nonlinearity is clearly shown.

    7. Spectral tuning of electroluminescence in conjugated copolymers by application of an external electric field (pages 234–237)

      Dr. Erez Z. Faraggi, Prof. Dan Davidov, Gil Cohen, Dr. Ronny Neumann and Prof. Yair Avny

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080310

      Color or spectral tuning of light emitted by LEDs based on conjugated polymers is important if such LEDs are to find applications in multicolor display devices. A copolymer system is described in which the wavelength of the electroluminescence can be controlled by the external voltage applied. Following an account of the monomer synthesis and copolymerization route, features of the photoluminescence, absorption, and electroluminescence spectra are reported and preliminary ideas presented about how to explain the results.

    8. Electroluminescent diodes from a single component emitting layer of dendritic macromolecules (pages 237–241)

      Dr. Pei-Wei Wang, Dr. Yu-Ju Liu, Dr. Chelladurai Devadoss, P. Bharathi and Prof. Jeffrey S. Moore

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080311

      Organic LEDs based on dendrimer materials are reported (see the figure for an example; a dot represents phenylene). Single-organic-layer devices have been produced using structurally welldefined dendritic modules. Although the efficiency of the devices is still low, this work provides a basis for a systematic strategy for tuning the properties of the active layers of organic LEDs.

    9. Evidence for n-type conduction in a perylene tetracarboxylic diimide derivative (pages 242–245)

      Dr. Gilles Horowitz, Dr. Fayçal Kouki, Dr. Peter Spearman, Dr. Denis Fichou, Dr. Claude Nogues, Dr. Xavier Pan and Dr. Francis Garnier

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080312

      n-Type—electron transporting—conduction is demonstrated for Schottky diodes and field effect transistors based on N,N′-diphenyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dimide. The role of the electron-injecting electrode is discussed, as are the potential improvements in performance offered by devices combining a p-type semiconducting layer with an n-type, electron transporting organic compound.

    10. Two- and three-dimensional crystallization of polymeric microspheres by micromolding in capillaries (pages 245–247)

      Enoch Kim, Younan Xia and Prof. George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080313

      Micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) is a novel, simple and convenient procedure for crystallizing microspheres from latex suspensions onto a support, and for delivering microspheres to and assembling them in geometrically confined regions on the surface of substrate (see figure). The principle of the method is outlined, examples are given, and possibilities for applications—e.g., in optical devices and microelectronics—are sketched.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Centrosymmetric molecules for second harmonic generation (pages 248–250)

      Prof. G. J. Ashwell

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080314

      The requirement of a non-centrosymmetric structure for second harmonic generation (SHG) was until recently assumed necessarily to apply to te smallest building block, the molecule. However, non-centrosymmetric aggregates of centrosymmetric molecules can exist, and their SHG properties are considered here. Derivatives of squaraines are taken as examples. Finally, the role of intermolecular charge transfer in Langmuir–Blodgett film-forming materials for SHG—both within the monolayers and across the boundary—is discussed.

    2. Heterogenizing homogeneous catalysis (pages 251–253)

      Maria G. L. Petrucci and Prof. Ashok K. Kakkar

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080315

      A new method for heterogenizing homogeneous catalysts involving simple acid–base hydrolytic chemistry on inorganic oxide surfaces is described. It provides easy access to thin films containing terminal amine and phosphine donor ligands, which are precursors to a variety of oriented organometallic surfaces (see figure; L =CO, PR3). Opportunities for the development of tailor-made active and selective catalysts are discussed.

    3. Dental implant materials: Surface modification and interface phenomena (pages 254–257)

      Frank Rupp, Jürgen Geis-Gerstorfer and Prof. Kurt E. Geckeler

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080316

      Interactions of biomaterials with hard and soft tissue, blood, or saliva are primarily controlled by the surface properties of the materials. Titanium and its alloys, in particular, have been shown to be biocompatible for many orthopedic and dental implant applications, but the surfaces of the metal still need modification in order to achieve bioactive or bioinert performance. Current methods and future trends in surface treatment of dental implant materials are presented and phenomena the implant-bioenvironment interface highlighted.

  6. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Materials Forum (pages 258–259)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080317

  7. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Communications
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Materials Forum
    8. Book Reviews

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