Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

April 1996

Volume 8, Issue 4

Pages fmi–fmi, 272–367

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080401

  2. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Materials Forum (page 272)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080402

  3. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Materials science in Italy: The role of the universities (pages 273–275)

      Prof. Dante Gatteschi

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080403

      This special issue on Materials Science in Italy kicks off with an account of the relatively short tradition of materials science in Italian universities. Professor D. Gatteschi, who coordinated this special issue, describes special projects in materials science launched by the CNR (the major funding agency for Italian research) and the organization of two consortia of university departments with the aim of competing successfully for funding.

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Transition Metal Based Ionic Mesogens (pages 277–289)

      Dr. Francesco Neve

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080404

      Can ionic liquid crystalline metal complexes match the structural variety of electrically neutral molecular and macromolecular related species? Recent progress made in structural design aimed at the formation of ionic materials with anisotropic physical properties—such as the cyclometallated ionic mesogen shown in the figure—is reviewed.

    2. Layered and pillared metal(IV) phosphates and phosphonates (pages 291–303)

      Prof. Giulio Alberti, Dr. Mario Casciola, Dr. Umberto Costantino and Dr. Riccardo Vivani

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080405

      Proton conductors, catalysts, and solar energy storage materials are some of the potential uses of various crystalline acid salts of tetravalent metals. Results obtained on a large number of metal(IV) phosphates and phosphonates are reviewed, the α- and β-structured layered metal(IV) phosphates and the organic derivatives of zirconium phosphates being emphasized. Methods of preparation and the structures determined—especially layered and pillared—are described.

    3. Biodegradable Polymeric Materials (pages 305–313)

      Prof. Emo Chiellini and Prof. Roberto Solaro

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080406

      What can stop the mountain of discarded plastic packaging from growing? One solution to be considered is the development and use of biodegradable polymers. The advantages and drawbacks of various biodegradable plastics, water-soluble polymers, and natural and semisynthetic polymers are outlined in tis review. The Figure shows a fork made of ECO-PLA, which is based on poly(lactic acid), after 33 days of degradation.

    4. Angle-Scanned Photoelectron Diffraction: Probing crystalline ultrathin films (pages 315–326)

      Prof. Gaetano Granozzi and Dr. Mauro Sambi

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080407

      The structure of near-surface atomic layers of materials can be deduced in some detail from angle-scanned X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) experiments, provided the results are properly interpreted. Following an introduction to the principles of XPD, selected results from a study of epitaxial growth are presented, illustrating the amount and type of information available for metal-on-metal, metal-on-oxide, and semiconductor growth. Finally, possible directions of future developments are sketched.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Functionalization of sexithiophene with electron-donating methylsulphanyl groups (pages 327–331)

      Dr. Giovanna Barbarella, Massimo Zambianchi, Dr. Rossanna Di Toro, Dr. Martino Colonna, Prof. Luciano Antolini and Prof. Alessandro Bongini

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080408

      Novel soluble sexithiophenes (6Ts) β-functionalized with electron-donating methylsulphanyl groups are reported. The resulting processable sexithiophenes, two examples of which are shown in the Figure, have optical gaps that can be finely tuned around the value for unsubstituted α-6T. The observed liquid-crystal behavior described here indicates a high degree of molecular organization in the solid in at least one case.

    2. Electronically conducting polymers and activated carbon: Electrode materials in supercapacitor technology (pages 331–334)

      Prof. Marina Mastragostino, Dr. Catia Arbizzani, Dr. Luca Meneghello and Dr. Ruggero Paraventi

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080409

      Supercapacitors are now attracting much attention as battery-complementary devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as in electric vehicle technology. Two types of supercapacitors with different modes of energy storage are currently under study: the double-layer, and the redox. Electronically conducting polymers represent an interesting class of electro-active materials for redox supercapacitors and can be applied in different configurations. Performance data for new and conventional devices are presented and compared to those of a double-layer capacitor with activated carbon electrodes.

    3. A novel method for the preparation of nanosized tio2 thin films (pages 334–337)

      Prof. Giorgio Sberveglieri, Dr. Laura E. Depero, Dr. Paolo Nelli, Dr. Cesare Perego, Dr. Luigi Sangaletti, Dr. Matteo Ferroni, Dr. Vincenzo Guidi and Prof. Giuliano Martinelli

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080410

      Nanostructured titanium dioxide has many important applications, including several in chemical sensors, for example in “electronic noses”. A new method of preparing nanosized TiO2 thin films based on rf magnetron sputtering is reported and the characterization of the resulting films described. Results are presented for the temperature variation of the electrical response of the films to NO2, in particular the response and recovery times of the resistance of the layer.

    4. Gold nanoparticles in micellar poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) films—size and interparticle distance control in monoparticulate films (pages 337–340)

      Prof. Martin Möller, Joachim P. Spatz and Dr. Arno Roescher

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080411

      Block copolymer micelles have been employed as nanosized reactors in which single gold particles were formed. Films can be produced by a process consisting of four steps. Monolayers of hexagonally assembled micelles (see Figure and this month's cover) can be prepared with rather regularly arranged, size-controlled Au nanoparticles. The method of preparation and the factors influencing control of the process are presented.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews
    1. Fluoride crystals for tunable lasers in the near infrared (pages 341–343)

      Dr. Mauro Tonelli, Dr. Alberto Di Lieto, Dr. Paolo Minguzzi, Dr. Alessandra Toncelli and Prof. Hans P. Jenssen

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080412

      Laser emission in the near infrared has been studied for a long tme with the aim of developing efficient solid-state sources. As part of the development of such a source, an investigation of the fluorescence of the active medium (LiYF4 doped with either Er or Er ad Tm) in the laser cavity has provided deeper insights into the mode of operation of the laser. Since the near infrared is an “eye-safe” region, applications can be foreseen wherever atmospheric propagation is required.

    2. NLO responses of organic materials: The vibrational approach (pages 345–347)

      Prof. Giuseppe Zerbi, Dr. Mirella Del Zoppo, Dr. Chiara Castiglioni and Dr. Paola Zuliani

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080413

      How the hyperpolarizabilities of organic polyconjugated materials can be obtained using vibrational spectroscopy is described. This recent work by a group in Milan opens up a completely new field of vibrational spectroscopy relevant o photonics. Results for the molecule shown in the Figure (among others) are presented as an illustration of the reliability of this method.

    3. Optical characterization of amorphous dielectric films (pages 349–352)

      Dr. Adele Sassella

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080414

      Dielectric thin films find technological applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics, for example, which makes it important to be able to characterize their electrical and optical properties easily. Two techniques available for the optical characterization—transmittance measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry—are considered here and examples presented for the characterization of silicon oxide, nitride, and oxynitride films in the IR and UV-vis regions by these methods.

    4. The electronic structure of solid α-sexithiophene (pages 353–359)

      Prof. Carlo Taliani and Prof. Lev M. Blinov

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080415

      The properties of α-sexithiophene (α-T6), e.g., the pronounced one-dimensionality of the molecule (see Figure), the layered crystal packing, and the low exciton binding energy, make it a very interesting material for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Investigations into the origin of its optical gap and conclusions drawn from them are reported.

    5. Transport properties of refractory and ceramic superconducting materials (pages 361–366)

      Prof. Ruggero Vaglio, Dr. Fabrizio Fontana and Dr. Maria Iavarone

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080416

      The transport properties of high-Tc ceramic superconductors and refractory materials are of particular interest in view of potential future applications. After recently developing a technique to deposit thin films of ceramic superconductors and refractory materials, researchers in Naples have investigated their fundamental physical properties using various types of experiments, focusing on the transport properties. Recent results are reviewed.

  7. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Materials Forum
    4. Essay
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Book Reviews

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