Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

July 1996

Volume 8, Issue 7

Pages fmi–fmi, 555–604

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essays
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080701

  2. Essays

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essays
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    1. European consortium on nanomaterials (pages 555–557)

      Dr. Joydeep Dutta, Prof. Heinrich Hofmann and Prof. Günter Schmid

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080702

      The European Consortium on Nanomaterials, which was founded earlier this year, brings together research groups from academia and industry from ten European countries with the aim of promoting the development of nanonstructured materials. The main objectives of the consortium and its working groups are outlined, the common features of nanomaterials are discussed, and the factors that need to be controlled in order to be able to tailor the properties of the materials are sketched. See the following Essay for details of another activity connected with nanomaterials.

    2. Vapor-phase synthesis and processing of nanoparticle materials (NANO) (pages 559–560)

      Prof. Heinz J. Fissan and Prof. Joop Schoonman

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080703

      The NANO initiative, sponsored by the European Science Federation (ESF), is a five-year program concerned with the vapor-phase synthesis and processing of nanoparticle materials. Arising from an ESF Exploratory Workshop held in 1993, the program, which began in 1995, aims to build bridges between the aerosol community and the materials science community. The activities included in the program, e.g., conferences and various forms of support, are outlined and the themes of the various working groups are detailed.

  3. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essays
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    1. Molecular recognition by self-assembled monolayers detected with surface plasmon resonance (pages 561–564)

      Dr. Bart-Hendrik Huisman, Dr. Rob P. H. Kooyman, Dr. Frank C. J. M. van Veggel and Prof. David N. Reinhoudt

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080704

      Self-assembled monolayers containing cavitand recognition sites have been used for the first time as an interface for vapor detection using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Fast response times (t90% < 1 s) and high sensitivity for tetrachloroethylene over other chlorinated hydrocarbons were measured with a monolayer of the resorcin[4]arene cavitand adsorbate shown in the Figure.

    2. Bifunctional homopolymeric hydrogen-bonded tapes (pages 564–567)

      Peter R. Ashton, Dr. George R. Brown, Dr. Wayne Hayes, Dr. Stephan Menzer, Dr. Douglas Philp, Prof. J. Fraser Stoddart and Prof. David J. Williams

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080705

      A novel cationic homopolymeric system has been constructed from a simple linear cationic pyridylphyridinium system by forming hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic acid termini of one molecule and the pyridine nitrogen atom of an adjacent molecule. The synthesis and characterization of the initial linear system are described and the X-ray crystal structure of the final tape system presented. This work illustrates how molecular recognition can be utilized to assemble supramolecular structures with a degree of predictability.

    3. New twin liquid crystalline diazole derivatives (pages 567–569)

      Prof. Moriyuki Sato and Dr. Seiji Ujiie

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080706

      Twin liquid crystalline diazole derivatives are expected to have a higher potential for liquid crystal (LC) formation than the corresponding non-twin derivatives. The preparation of twin 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives is described and the investigation of their LC properties reported. A characteristic nematic schlieren texture of one of the oxadiazoles is shown in the Figure.

    4. Liquid crystalline α, α-difluorobenzyl phenyl ethers (pages 570–573)

      Ekkehard Bartmann

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080707

      Liquid crystalline compounds containing a difluoromethyleneoxy (CF2O) bridge, which increases the polarity, have been synthesized and investigated. The physical properties related to liquid crystal applications (i.e., phase transitions, viscosity, dielectric anisotropy, birefringence) are reported. The compounds shown unusually low viscosities in combination with mostly reasonable or good values of the other parameters, making them highly interesting for applications in modern display technologies.

    5. Surface modification and patterning of conjugated polymers with near-field optical microscopy (pages 573–576)

      Dr. P. K. Wei, Dr. J. H. Hsu, B. R. Hsieh and Prof. W. S. Fann

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080708

      Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) has been used to write and read images on a conjugated polymer film—such as that in the Figure–with a resolution of ∼ 0.1 μm, clearly breaking the diffraction limit. It is demonstrated that photo-oxidation processes produce the contrast and that NSOM has the potential to control the photochemistry of a conjugated polymer at the nanometer scale.

    6. A luminescent iridium(III) cyclometallated complex immobilized in a polymeric matrix as a solid-state oxygen sensor (pages 576–580)

      Dr. Gaetano Di Marco, Dr. Maurizio Lanza, Dr. Marco Pieruccini and Dr. Sebastiano Campagna

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080709

      In luminescence-based oxygen sensors the active luminescent species is usually a transition metal complex immobilized in a polymeric matrix—in most cases a ruthenium(II) polypyridine complex. In an attempt to overcome some of the disadvantages of these systems, a polymer-immobilized iridium(III) complex has been prepared and used for the first time as the active species in such a sensor. The luminescence properties of this system are described and its drawbacks with regard to sensors technology discussed.

    7. Electroactive films with a polyrotaxane organic backbone (pages 580–582)

      Prof. Jean-Marc Kern, Dr. Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Dr. Gérard Bidan, Dr. Martial Billon and Dr. Bernadette Divisia-Blohorn

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080710

      Polyrotaxane-like structures consisting of macrocycles trapped to form a polymeric network (see Figure) have been synthesized using a pre-assembling principle. The synthesis and electrochemical characterization of thin films are described. In addition to the classical properties of organic conducting polymers, the assemblies exhibit very specific properties arising from the coordinating macrocycles sliding between the nodes of the network.

    8. Kinetics of metallocene intercalation into layered metal dichalcogenide hosts (pages 582–585)

      Dr. Stephen J. Price, Dr. John S. O. Evans, Dr. Robin J. Francis and Dr. Dermot O'Hare

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080711

      Intercalation into lamellar host lattices is in general poorly understood with regard to mechanistic details. A study is reported here that utilizes energy dispersive X-ray diffraction at a synchrotron source to determine the rate of intercalation of cobaltocene into a range of lamellar metal dichalcogenide lattices. The results are suggested to have general implications for how metallocene intercalation into metal dichalcogenides should be performed in order to maximize the rate of reaction.

    9. Efficient blue light emitting devices based on rigid-rod polyelectrolytes (pages 585–588)

      Dr. Vera Cimrová, Dr. Wolfgang Schmidt, Dr. Rudy Rulkens, Dr. Margit Schulze, Dr. Wolfgang Meyer and Dr. Dieter Neher

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080712

      Blue light emitting devices based on a rigid-rod polyelectrolyte–sulfonated poly(p-phenylene), see Figure–that has both luminescent and ionic moieties have been prepared and their properties investigated. It is reported that the devices exhibited a low onset voltage (3.3 V), the external quantum efficiencies reached 0.8%, and the size of the counter ion had a pronounced influence on the electrical characteristics.

    10. Amorphous silica molecular sieving membranes by sol-gel processing (pages 588–591)

      Dr. Guozhong Cao, Yunfeng Lu, Laurent Delattre, Prof. C. Jeffrey Brinker and Prof. Gabriel P. López

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080713

      Microporous ceramics and ceramic membranes have many potential applications, for example, in the chemical, environmental, energy conversion, and automotive industries. An organic template approach using sol-gel processing is described by which microporous amorphous silica is synthesized. It is shown that the very narrow pore size distribution is comparable to that of the zeolite ZSM-5 and that the membranes have ideal gas separation factors at least two orders of magnitude larger than those expected for a Knudsen diffusion separation mechanism.

    11. Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (dast) (pages 592–595)

      Feng Pan, Man Shing Wong, Christian Bosshard and Prof. Peter Günter

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080714

      The growth of bulk crystals of organic salts with large chromophoric has received little attention, despite the importance of crystal quality for both applications and research. Here, the growth of the title compound (DAST), see Figure, is reported and the main results of the linear, nonlinear, and electro-optical characterization are presented DAST is shown to be of interest for nonlinear optical applications.

  4. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essays
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    1. Crystalline superlattices with designed structure from elementally modulated reactants (pages 596–599)

      Dr. Myungkeun Noh, Dr. James Thiel and Prof. David C. Johnson

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080715

      The synthesis of new „designed” layer structures from superlattice reactants is outlined. Annealing of interwoven layers of elements within a superlattice–i.e., at greater than nanometer spacing–kinetically traps the final desired nanostructured product (see also the cover of this issue). A series of crystalline superlattices containing a niobium diselenide and titanium diselenide superstructure are used to explore the effect of the superstructure on the superconducting properties of the niobium diselenide.

    2. Nanoparticular intermetallics and alloys via inorganic grignard reagents (pages 600–604)

      Dr. Lorraine E. Aleandri, Prof. Borislav Bogdanović, Dr. Christine Dürr, Dr. Deborah J. Jones, Prof. Jacques Rozière and Ursula Wilczok

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080716

      Novel inorganic Grinard complexes (e.g., that in the Figure) used as reagents enable nanoparticulate bimetallic systems, i.e., intermetallics or alloys, to be prepared in a controlled two-stage process. The preparation and characterization of inorganic Grignard reagents and, in particular, the synthesis of nanoparticulate intermetallics and alloys via such reagents are briefly reviewed.

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