Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

September 1996

Volume 8, Issue 9

Pages fmi–fmi, 713–776

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Materials Forum
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080901

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Materials Forum
    1. Technology-transfer analysis of the materials research program “Matfo” (pages 713–717)

      Dr. Steffen Preusser and Dr. Franz-Josef Bremer

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080902

      The “Matfo” program of the German Science Ministry (BMFT, in those days) ran from 1985 to 1994 and has been succeeded by the “Matech” program. The commercial success of the Matfo program, which involved some 700 projects with 1400 research partners and ca. DM 2.2 billion in funding was recently assessed to determine the effectiveness of the direct funding model in supporting innovative industrial research. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Materials Forum
    1. Golden interfaces: The Surface of Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 719–729)

      Dr. Emmanuel. Delamarche, Dr. Bruno. Michel, Dr. Hans A. Biebuyck and Dr. Christoph Gerber

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080903

      Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols and disulfides on gold (see Figure) form organic interfaces with properties largely controlled by the end groups of the molecules composing the film. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at picoamperes proves to be a powerful technique for probing the surface structure of such SAMs down to the sub-angstrom level. The application of STM to these systems and the structure–property information obtained is reviewed.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Materials Forum
    1. Electrochemical annealing and friction anisotropy of domains in epitaxial molecular films (pages 730–733)

      Julie A. Last and Prof. Michael D. Ward

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080904

      The formation of high-quality organic thin films with low defect densities and good lateral ordering is essential for many electronic and optical technologies. Here, electrochemically fabricated thin films of conducting and superconducting organic charge-transfer salts are examined using AFM, which reveals revealing frictional anisotropy between domains in the films. The number and size of the domains can be reduced through an “electrochemical annealing” process. The role of epitaxy in domain formation and the influence of domain size on the dynamics of annealing are discussed.

    2. Influence of polar substituents on the epitaxy of oligothiophenes on graphite: A systematic STM investigation (pages 733–737)

      Horst Müller, Jörg Petersen, Rainer Strohmaier, Dr. Bruno Gompf, Prof. Wolfgang Eisenmenger, Martin S. Vollmer and Prof. Franz Effenberger

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080905

      The variation of substituents of oligothiophenes can be used to control the epitaxy of the materials through systematic modification of intermolecular interactions. The STM characterization of new oligothiophenes (e.g. see Figure) is reported and is shown to provide useful structural information on the supramolecular assemblies which have potential in molecular optical and electronic applications.

    3. Hybrid molecular materials formed by alternating layers of bimetallic oxalate complexes and tetrathiafulvalene molecules: Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of TTF4(Mn(H2O)2)[Cr(ox)3]2)·14 H2O (pages 737–740)

      Prof. Eugenio Coronado, José Ramón Galán-Mascarós, Carlos Giménez-Saiz, Dr. Carlos J. Gó;mez-García, Dr. Catalina Ruiz-Pérez and Dr. Smaïl Triki

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080906

      Hybrid bimetallic–TTF materials in which the organic layer adopts an unprecedented dimerized structure and the inorganic layer is formed by the first ferromagnetic CrIII–MnII–CrIII complex are reported. These materials provide valuable information on the magnetic interactions between these metal ions which should help in the understanding of the behavior of extended magnetic lattices based on oxalate complexes. A method is also provided to prepare materials combining the ferromagnetic properties of the bimetallic oxalate network with the conducting properties of the TTF-type donors.

    4. 4,4′,4″-Tris(stearoylamino)triphenylamine as a novel material for functional molecular gels (pages 740–741)

      Yoshiaki Yasuda, Dr. Yasuo Takebe, Masahiro Fukumoto, Hiroshi Inada and Prof. Yasuhiko Shirota

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080907

      Electroactive organic molecular gels based on the title compound (see Figure) are reported along with their sol-gel behavior and ionic conductivities, and their application as electrochromic materials is discussed. Furthermore the correlation between molecular structure and gel formation is examined in order to provide guidelines on the molecular design of gel-forming organic materials.

    5. Formation of non-stoichiometric salts of tetrathiafulvalene in an acidic medium (pages 742–745)

      Prof. Giuseppe Farnia, Prof. Giancarlo Sandonà and Prof. Franco Marcuzzi

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080908

      A new, convenient synthetic pathway to non-stoichiometric mixed-valence tetrathiafulvalenium salts is presented. Study of TTF · squarilium chloride salts produced using this method provides further evidence that the generation of the radical species takes place through acid-base reactions.

    6. Second harmonic generation with metal-containing ferroelectric liquid crystals (pages 745–748)

      Prof. Pablo Espinet, Dr. Jesús Etxebarría, Dr. César Luis Folcia, Dr. Josu Ortega, Dr. María Blanca Ros and Prof. José Luis Serrano

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080909

      The second harmonic generation (SHG) parameters for metal-containing ferroelectric liquid crystals are reported for the first time. Some of the materials, based on the structure shown in the Figure, exhibit reasonable NLO efficiencies despite the fact that the molecules themselves do not possess well-defined donor–acceptor arrays.

    7. Intramolecular electron transfer phenomena in purely organic mixed-valence high-spin ions: A triplet anion case (pages 748–752)

      Josep Sedó, Dr. Daniel Ruiz, Dr. José Vidal-Gancedo, Dr. Concepció Rovira, Dr. Jacques Bonvoisin, Prof. Jean-Pierre Launay and Prof. Jaume Veciana

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080910

      A purely organic mixed-valence high-spin species in which the existence of an electron transfer process has been clearly established by NIR spectroscopy is reported. Since magnetic coupling and electron transfer are by no means independent of each other the opportunity to study the first organic material to exhibit both phenomena is of particular interest.

    8. Switchable smectic C* main chain liquid crystalline polymers (pages 752–756)

      Dr. Teresa Sierra, Dr. Ana Omenat, Dr. Joaquìn Barberá and Prof. José Luis Serrano

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080911

      Main chain liquid crystalline polymers (MCLCPs) are the basis of a number of high-performance polymeric materials, examples being Kevlar and Vectra. For optical and electro-optical applications, side-chain LCPs have attracted much interest since their behavior is similar to low molecular weight LCs. Here, a ferroelectric MCLCP (see Figure) is reported.

    9. Second-order nonlinear optical properties of a chromophore-functionalized polypeptide (pages 756–759)

      Dr. Thierry Verbiest, Prof. Celest Samyn, Carlo Boutton, Stephan Houbrechts, Dr. Martti Kauranen and Prof. André Persoons

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080912

      The attachment of a nonlinear optical chromophore to a polypeptide backbone yields a structure in which the chromophores are oriented non-centrosymmetrically, likely due to the supramolecular helix structure of the polypeptide. This structure exhibits enhanced nonlinear optical properties and can be easily poled in an electrostatic field. The result demonstrates the great potential of supramolecular engineering for optimizing NLO properties.

    10. Transformation of intercalated layered silicates to zeolites in the solid state (pages 759–762)

      Dr. Shinichi Shimizu, Yoshimichi Kiyozumi, Kazuyuki Maeda, Dr. Fujio Mizukami, Dr. Gabriella Pál-Borbély, Dr. R. Magdolna Mihályi and Prof. Hermann K. Beyer

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080913

      Shaping zeolites into useful forms is very important for technical applications in areas such as catalysis, separation, and sensing. Normally it is difficult to form zeolites into appropriate shapes without mixing them with binders. Here, a method is presented for transforming preformed layered silicates into silicalite zeolites (e.g. see Figure).

    11. Fundamentals of the preparation of high-TC, superconducting (Bi,Pb)2+XSr2Ca2Cu3O10+δceramics (pages 762–765)

      Dr. Peter Majewski, Dr. Stefanie Kaesche and Professor Fritz Aldinger

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080914

      For the 2223 phase of the BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor, detailed knowledge of the phase relations and the homogeneity region are essential to the understanding of the fundamental issues influencing the processing of the materials. A six-component system such as this would require a six-dimensional phase diagram. Several ways to simplify the task to manageable dimensions, and the information one can obtain from a detailed investigation of this system are discussed.

    12. Shadowed sputtering of gold on V -shaped microtrenches etched in silicon and applications in microfabrication (pages 765–768)

      Younan Xia and Prof. George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080915

      Silicon micromachining has a wide range of applications in, for example, microelectronics. Here, a combination of several techniques is used in modifying the surface properties of V-shaped microtrenches (see Figure) and for fabricating complex surface relief structures.

    13. Phosphorescent oxygen sensors utilizing sulfur–nitrogen–phosphorus polymer matrices (pages 768–771)

      Zhen Pang, Dr. Xijia Gu, Ahmad Yekta, Zahra Masoumi, Dr. John B. Coll, Prof. Mitchell A. Winnik and Prof. Ian Manners

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080916

      Luminescent sensors based on composites comprising transition metal complexes immobilized in polymer matrices have attracted attention as oxygen sensors for both biomedical and barometric applications. Typically, phosphorescent dyes are dispersed in a polymer matrix of high gas permeability are used. Here, S–N–P polymers are used as a novel matrix material allowing the sensitivity of the sensors to be controlled over a wide range.

    14. A new layer-structured nitride superconductor. Lithium-intercalated β-zirconium nitride chloride, LixZrNCl (pages 771–774)

      Prof. Shoji Yamanaka, Prof. Hitoshi Kawaji, Ken-ichi Hotehama and Prof. Masao Ohashi

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080917

      The first layered nitride superconductor is reported! The intercalation of lithium into the layered compound β-ZrNCl (which is shown on the inside front cover of this issue) results in electron transfer from the lithium to the ZrN layers and the conversion of semiconducting β-ZrNCl to a black metallic compound with a superconducting transition temperature of around 12.5 K. Interesting parallels with layered copper oxide superconductors and alkali-metal doped fullerene superconductors should provide insight into the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity.

  5. Materials Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Review
    5. Communications
    6. Materials Forum
    1. Materials Forum (page 776)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080918