Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

Januar 1997

Volume 9, Issue 1

Pages fmi–fmi, 9–89

  1. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. Masthead (page fmi)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090101

  2. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. Solving materials problems by computer simulation (pages 9–11)

      Dr. Stephen J. Mumby

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090102

      How can computer simulation best be developed in materials science? The company MSI has successfully used the approach of forming consortia to expand the boundarics of computational materials science and to transfer the technology to industry. The philosophy behind this approach is explained and the history and success of MSI's consortia outlined from the foundation of the first consortium, which focused on polymer property prediction, in 1989 to the present. Plans for the future are briefly sketched.

  3. Materials Forums

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. Materials Forum (pages 13–14)

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090103

  4. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. Polyelectrolyte–Surfactant Complexes in the Solid State: Facile building blocks for self-organizing materials (pages 17–31)

      Prof. Christopher K. Ober and Prof. Gerhard Wegner

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090104

      The formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes complexes is a simple way of producing new melt-processable, organic soluble materials in the solid state with properties that range from thermoplastic via elastomeric to thermosetting. Recently reported methods for preparing such complexes—and characterizing their solid-state structures (see Figure)—are reviewed, critical issues highlighted, and prospects outlined. Fig.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. Red–green–blue light emission from a thin film electroluminescence device based on parahexaphenyl (pages 33–36)

      Prof. GÜNther Leising, Stefan Tasch, Christoph Brandstatter, Farideh Meghdadi, Prof. Gerard Froyer and Dr. Laurence Athouel

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090105

      For colored flat panel displays electroluminescent organic semiconductors are very promising. A novel means is described for the realization of red, green, and blue (RGB) dots based on all all-organic color transformation technique. The construction of the parahexylphenyl-based electroluminescence device and its combination with suitable matrix dye layers and dielectric mirrors and filters are outlined. The simplicity of the production of the device and the tunability of the comitted colors make this technique technologically attractive.

    2. Benzodithiophene Rings as Semiconductor Building Blocks (pages 36–39)

      Dr. Joyce G. Laquindanum, Dr. Howard E. Katz, Dr. Andrew J. Lovinger and Dr. Ananth Dodabalapur

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090106

      An organic p-type semiconductor based on benzodithiophene building blocks is reported for the first time. The synthesis and electrical and morphological characterization of a dimer compound (see Figure) are described, including field-effect measurements on thin film transistors, X-ray diffraction, molecular modeling, and electron microscopy. The exceptional thermal stability is noted.

    3. Photoswitched sexithiophenes: Towards switchable molecular wires (pages 39–42)

      Prof. Jean-Marie Lehn and Dr. Gerasimos M. Tsivgouli

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090107

      A photoswitchable molecular wire based on a sexithiophene core is described that has potential as a light-driven molecular switch. The synthesis route. UV-vis spectra, and electrochemical behavior are presented for the compound, which behaves like substituted terthiophene in the open form and like substituted sexithiophene in the closed form. It is shown that interconversion between the open and closed forms can be achived using two different wavelengths of the visible region; applications are foreseen in organic electronic devices.

    4. Highly ordered vacuum-deposited thin films of metallophthalocyanines and their applications in field-effect transistors (pages 42–44)

      Dr. Zhenan Bao, Dr. Andrew J. Lovinger and Dr. Ananth Dodabalapur

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090108

      Metallophthalocyanine thin films, obtained by vacuum deposition as highly ordered, uniquely oriented films (the Figure shows an iron phthalocyanine film deposited at 200°C), have been sued to fabricated organic field-effect transistors (FETs). It is demonstrated that the substrate temperature during deposition greatly affects the substrate temperature during deposition greatly affects the electric properties of the devices. FIG.

    5. A ferrimagnetically coupled liquid crystal (pages 45–48)

      Dr. Klaus Griesar, Maria A. Athanassopoulou, Dr. Eduardoa Soto Bustamante, Prof. Wolfgang Haase, Dr. Zbigniew Tomkowicz and Dr. Andrzej J. Zaleski

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090109

      Ferrimagnetic coupling in a mesogen is reported for the first time for the compound MnIII[((OC12H25)4 TPP)](TCNE) · 2 touluene (where TPP = tetraphenyl porphyrin, TCNE – tetracyanoethylene), which displays liquid crystal properties above 381 K and ferrimagnetic properties below 21.4 K. The results from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and AC susceptibility studies are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of net magnetic moments at zero applied field.

    6. Columnar discotics for light emitting diodes (pages 48–52)

      Prof. Joachim H. Wendorff, Thomas Christ, Birgit Glüsen, Andreas Greiner, Andreas Kettner, Roland Sander, Volker Stümpflen and Prof. Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090110

      The suitability fo columnar discotics for applications in light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated following the demonstration of their unusually large charge carrier mobilities. Results of X-ray diffraction, computer simulations, and electroluminescence measurements are presented and discussed for discotic systems such as that shown in the Figure. Their use in LEDs is expected to the advantageous.

    7. Demonstration of a nanolithographic technique using a self-assembled monolayer resist for neutral atomic cesium (pages 52–55)

      Prof. Mara Prentiss, Karl K. Berggren, Rebecca Younkin, Eunice Cheung, Prof. Michael Tinkham, Daniel C. Ralph, Charles T. Black, Prof. George M. Whitesides and Andrew J. Black

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090111

      A new lithographic method of making nanostructures is demonstrated in which a patterned beam of neutral cesium atoms is used to damage a ∼1.2-nm-thick self-assembled monolayer resist of alkanethiolates on gold. The attractive features of cesium for atomic lithography and the current techniques for neutral atom lithography are sketched. The method is detailed and investigations of the damage to the surface are described. This can be viewed as a first step towards fabricating nanostructures in silicon using optically patterned neutral atomic beams.

    8. Extremely large mesoporous carbon fibers synthesized by the addition of rare earth metal complexes and their unique adsorption behaviors (pages 55–58)

      Prof. Hajime Yasuda, Prof. Hisashi Tamai, Makiko Ikeuchi and Shigeyuki Kojima

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090112

      Extremely highly mesoporous activated carbon fibers (see Figure) have been synthesized for the first time from pitch fibers containing rare earth metal complexes. These fibers have potential applications in the purification of drinking water, for example, owing to their ability to absorb giant molecules such as humic acid. Investigations of the absorption behavior of the fibers are reported. fig.

    9. Skeletonization of mixed arachidic acid/cadmium arachidate LB films: A study using atomic force microscopy (pages 58–61)

      Prof. Michael C. Petty, Christopher Pearson, Simon A. Evenson and Prof. Jas Pal S. Badyal

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090113

      The microscopic structure of skeletonized films of cadmium arachidate has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM)—skeletonization is the removal of free acid from a mixed Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films and the AFM methods used are detailed, AFM images and results from a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform analysis are discussed, and factors affecting the overall cadmium arachidate content of the transferred film are considered.

    10. Metal nanoparticle/polymer superlattice films: Fabrication and control of layer structure (pages 61–65)

      Dr. Johannes Schmitt, Prof. Gero Decher, Dr. Walter J. Dressick, Dr. Susan L. Brandow, Dr. Robert E. Geer, Dr. R. Shashidhar and Dr. Jeffrey M. Calvert

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090114

      Multilayer superlattices incorporating colloidal metal nanoparticles have been synthesized by an approach based on self-assembly. Teh method of synthesis is described and the results are presented from X-ray reflectivity measurements, optical spectroscopy, and various microscopies, showing that they provide a consistent picture of the structure of the resulting multilayer superlattices (see Figure). fig.

    11. Formation of monodispersed ultrafine platinum particles and their electrophoretic deposition on electrodes (pages 65–67)

      Dr. Toshiharu Teranishi, Prof. Mikio Miyake and Masahiro Hosoe

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090115

      Ordered ultrafine platinum particles are expected to have properties differing from those of isolated particles, however, few measurements have been made because of the difficulty of producing monodispersed Pt particles. A method is reported for controlling the size and size distribution of polymer-protected ultrafine Pt particles, which can be ordered densely in two dimensions to give Pt particle monolayers by electrophoretic deposition. The structure of the particles and the importance of the nucleation rate in determining the size and distribution are discussed.

    12. Yttrium-doped alumoxanes: A chimie douce route to Y3Al5O12(YAG) and Y4A12O9 (YAM) (pages 68–71)

      Dr. C. Jeff Harlan, Prof. Aivaras Kareiva, D. Brent MacQueen, Dr. Ron Cook and Dr. Andrew R. Barror

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090116

      Yttrium-doped alumoxanes are demonstrated to be ideal precursors for ternary aluminum oxides such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). The yttrium-doped alumoxanes (see Figure), formed by the reaction of carboxylate alumoxanes with Y(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate), provide a chimie douce route to YAG that directly competes with the traditional sol-gel synthesis and has the additional advantage of greater processability of the pre-ceramic.

    13. Thermally induced colloid formation of au on a polysilane film pre-exposed to UV light and its application to novel optical recording media (pages 71–75)

      Dr. Norio Nagayama, Dr. Kazuhiro Itagaki and Prof. Masaaki Yokoyama

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090117

      A novel write-once optical recording medium is one application of a phenomenon reported here: when a thin layer of gold on PMPS—a typical polysilane—is pre-exposed to UV radiation before being heated, a gold colloid is formed in the PMPS in those areas which were exposed to the radiation. The accompanying reduction in reflectance due to the gold-to-magenta color change can be used as an optical memory that is compatible with the current CD reading system. Details of the observation and follow-up studies are reported.

    14. Thermal and optical characterization of high purity α-octithiophenk (pages 75–80)

      Dr. Denis Fichou, Dr. Marie-Paule te Ulade-Fichou, Dr. Gilles Horowitz and Dr. Frédéric Demanze

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090118

      The preparation of high purity α-octithiophene (α-8T) by vacuum sublimation and the investigation of its optical properties in solution and as thin films and single crystals are reported. α-8T is probably the ultimate unsubstituted oligothiophene to be processable as a pure crystalline compound. In addition, the first experimental evidence for unsubstituted α-12T (see Figure) is presented.

  6. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Masthead
    3. Essay
    4. Materials Forums
    5. Articles
    6. Communications
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Research News
    1. A three-color, three-dimensional, solid-state display (pages 83–85)

      Dr. Lothar Kador

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090121

      The display of three-dimensional, dynamical, colored scenes in real time and under virtually any viewing angle was recently reported. The physical principles of this novel, recently published technique that allows simultaneous viewing by many people are reviewed. The construction of the prototype display is outlined, in which the image appears inside a volume of heavy-metal fluoride glass doped with rare-earth ions. Luminescent sports are addressed by intersecting infrared laser beams, leading to fluorescence in the visible.

    2. Electron field emitters based on carbon nanotube films (pages 87–89)

      Prof. Walt A. de Heer, Dr. Jean-Marc Bonard, Dr. Kai Fauth, Prof. André Châtelain, Dr. Daniel Ugarte and Dr. László Forró

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.19970090122

      The excellent field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube films, i.e., the property that the tips of the nanotubes emit electrons when placed in an electric field, are discussed in some detail. The experimental configurations used (see Figure) and the results obtained are reviewed. It is suggested that carbon nanotube films should be considered as good candidates for display applications.

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