Plasma Break-Down and Re-Build: Same Functional Vertical Graphenes from Diverse Natural Precursors

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Abstract

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Plasmas, the 4th state of matter, uniformly transform natural precursors with different chemical composition in solid, liquid, and gas states into the same functional vertical graphenes in a single-step process within a few minutes. Functional vertical graphenes show reliable biosensing properties, strong binding with proteins, and improved adhesion to substrates.

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