A means to control the net doping of a CQD solid is identified via the design of the bidentate ligand crosslinking the material. The strategy does not rely on implementing different atmospheres at different steps in device processing, but instead is a robust strategy implemented in a single processing ambient. We achieve an order of magnitude difference in doping that allows us to build a graded photovoltaic device and maintain high current and voltage at maximum power-point conditions.
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