Get access

Digital Liquid Patterning: A Versatile Method for Maskless Generation of Liquid Patterns and Gradients

Authors

  • Alexander N. Efremov,

    1. Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggensein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    2. Department of Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Michael Grunze,

    1. Department of Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    2. Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Pavel A. Levkin

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggensein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    2. Department of Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

image

A facile, maskless, digital liquid patterning method, allowing on-demand fabrication of liquid patterns without the need to change the substrate or use different photomasks, is described. Patterns with customized geometries can be created manually by simple pipetting. An application of this maskless method to create patterns of particles, cells, hydrogels, and complex liquid gradients compatible with cell studies is shown.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary