Advanced Optical Materials

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 10

October 2013

Volume 1, Issue 10

Pages 679–775

  1. Cover Picture

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      Color Displays: Responsive Monochromatic Color Display Based on Nanovolcano Arrays (Advanced Optical Materials 10/2013) (page 679)

      Bin Ai, Ye Yu, Helmuth Möhwald and Gang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201370058

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      The monochromatic colors in this computerrendered image from G. Zhang and co-workers are generated via a unique surface plasmon process based on the special nanovolcano array shown below. The structure of the nanovolcano array, described on page 724, is fabricated by colloidal lithography, and the colors are sensitive to changes in their environment, meaning that they can be easily tuned.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Photonic Crystals: Enhanced Photon Management of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells Using Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals with 3D Photonic Bandgaps (Advanced Optical Materials 10/2013) (page 680)

      Leo T. Varghese, Yi Xuan, Ben Niu, Li Fan, Peter Bermel and Minghao Qi

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201370059

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      To enhance light trapping, M. Qi, P. Bermel, and co-workers use 3D photonic crystals (PhCs) as back-reflectors for solar cells. On page 692, a novel S5 process is developed to form a freestanding, self-assembled, inverse opal PhC, which is then transferred onto a commercial thinfilm silicon solar cell. As illustrated in the image, light impinging onto the PhC not only reflects but also diffracts back into the solar cell, resulting in increased electron–hole pair generation and a material efficiency enhancement of 10%.

  3. Back Cover

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      Molybdenum Oxides: Wide-Spectral Photoresponse of Black Molybdenum Oxide Photodetector via Sub-Bandgap Electronic Transition (Advanced Optical Materials 10/2013) (page 778)

      Tsz-Wai Ng, Qing-Dan Yang, Hin-Wai Mo, Ming-Fai Lo, Wen-Jun Zhang and Chun-Sing Lee

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201370063

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      On page 699, C.-S. Lee, M.-F. Lo, and co-workers report a black-colored MoO3 obtained by vacuum annealing of typical transparent MoO3. The black color is caused by splitting of the original wide bandgap into two regions of 1.8 and 1.0 eV widths. This enables IR absorption and the fabrication of a black MoO3-based photodetector with response across the full UV–visible–IR spectral range.

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      Masthead: (Advanced Optical Materials 10/2013)

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201370062

  5. Contents

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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  6. Frontispiece

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      Transparent OLEDs: Blur-Free Outcoupling Enhancement in Transparent Organic Light Emitting Diodes: A Nanostructure Extracting Surface Plasmon Modes (Advanced Optical Materials 10/2013) (page 686)

      Chung Sock Choi, Dong-Young Kim, Sung-Min Lee, Myung Sub Lim, Kyung Cheol Choi, Hyunsu Cho, Tae-Wook Koh and Seunghyup Yoo

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201370061

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      On page 687, K. C. Choi and co-workers demonstrate a nanostructured transparent organic lightemitting diode. The diode structure, with a periodically perforated layer of tungsten trioxide at the base, strongly couples the waveguide modes to the surface plasmon mode. This coupling is enhanced without any noticable effect on the transparency of the diode, meaning that this technology could be used in transparent displays with reducing the sharpness of the image.

  7. Communications

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    1. Blur-Free Outcoupling Enhancement in Transparent Organic Light Emitting Diodes: A Nanostructure Extracting Surface Plasmon Modes (pages 687–691)

      Chung Sock Choi, Dong-Young Kim, Sung-Min Lee, Myung Sub Lim, Kyung Cheol Choi, Hyunsu Cho, Tae-Wook Koh and Seunghyup Yoo

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300189

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      A nanostructured transparent organic light emitting diode (TrOLED) with a periodically perforated tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer is proposed to improve the light extraction efficiency of TrOLEDs. The embedded nanostructure enhances the outcoupling of the waveguide modes and the surface plasmon mode. Improved outcoupling efficiency can be achieved with negligible influence on the transmittance or optical clarity.

    2. Enhanced Photon Management of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells Using Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals with 3D Photonic Bandgaps (pages 692–698)

      Leo T. Varghese, Yi Xuan, Ben Niu, Li Fan, Peter Bermel and Minghao Qi

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300254

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      Experimental demonstration of silicon inverse opal photonic crystals (PhCs) as a wave-optics-based back reflector for polycrystalline silicon solar cells is shown. Using a novel S5 process, crack-free three dimensional PhCs are fabricated, which are free-standing and have good optical properties. An efficiency enhancement of 10% is measured for 1.5 μm-thick commercial silicon solar cells, matching reasonably well with simulations.

    3. Wide-Spectral Photoresponse of Black Molybdenum Oxide Photodetector via Sub-Bandgap Electronic Transition (pages 699–702)

      Tsz-Wai Ng, Qing-Dan Yang, Hin-Wai Mo, Ming-Fai Lo, Wen-Jun Zhang and Chun-Sing Lee

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300220

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Black molybdenum oxide (BMO) is prepared by annealing transparent MoO3. While recent efforts on other black oxides show that their black colour contributes little towards visible light harvesting, the presented BMO shows much-enhanced photoresponse over the UV–vis–IR regions. By sandwiching the BMO with suitable charge transporting layers, a photodetector with spectral response from UV to IR is demonstrated.

    4. Experimental Demonstration of Magnetic Carriage for Transport of Light Trapped in Magnetizable Mie Spheres (pages 703–706)

      Rajesh Patel and Rasbindu V. Mehta

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300123

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      Demonstration of transport of trapped light: the refractive index contrast between a colloidal dispersion of micrometer-sized particles and the surrounding ferrofluid is a function of the applied static magnetic field. This can be used to tune the morphology-dependent resonance in the microspheres, leading to light trapping. The trapped light can then be transported magnetically via the ferrodispersion and released by turning off the applied field.

    5. Highly Efficient Color Stable Inverted White Top-Emitting OLEDs with Ultra-Thin Wetting Layer Top Electrodes (pages 707–713)

      Tobias Schwab, Sylvio Schubert, Simone Hofmann, Markus Fröbel, Cornelius Fuchs, Michael Thomschke, Lars Müller-Meskamp, Karl Leo and Malte C. Gather

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300241

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      An ultra-thin MoO3–Au–Ag wetting layer metal electrode is investigated to eliminate present optical and electrical limitations of inverted top-emitting OLEDs. Its high transmittance suppresses microcavity effects and the MoO3 hole injection layer compensates limited charge injection from the top contact. Overall, an extensive approach is presented to solve the key problems of top-emitting OLEDs in general.

    6. Enhanced Terahertz Bandwidth and Power from GaAsBi-based Sources (pages 714–719)

      Barmak Heshmat, Mostafa Masnadi-Shirazi, Ryan Burton Lewis, Jinye Zhang, Thomas Tiedje, Reuven Gordon and Thomas Edward Darcie

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300190

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      Terahertz photoconductive (PC) switches are popular for THz wave generation. Unlike nonlinear crystals, they don't require high optical excitation power and precise phase matching, but their output THz power is limited. Here, the conventional substrate is replaced with enhanced GaAsBi (growth recipe included) and its performance is compared to that of a LT-GaAs PC switch and a nanoplasmonic PC switch. The results show a 0.5 THz increase in bandwidth and 4-fold improvement in emission power for GaAsBi and GaAsBi nanoplasmonic PC switches, respectively

    7. Ferroelectric Domain Engineered Photochemical Deposition for Area-Selectable Broadband Enhancement of Quantum Dot Photoluminescence (pages 720–723)

      Kenny Lau, Isabelle Staude, Yun Liu, Hua Chen, Zhenrong Li and Dragomir N. Neshev

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300200

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      Spatially controllable and broadband enhancement of quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence is demonstrated via photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on a domain patterned ferroelectric, as a consequence of confining the excitation field near the silver nanoparticle and coupling of the multiple plasmonic modes with the QD emissions. These results are promising for application in multiplex detections.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Responsive Monochromatic Color Display Based on Nanovolcano Arrays (pages 724–731)

      Bin Ai, Ye Yu, Helmuth Möhwald and Gang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300224

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monochromatic colors with facile tunability are achieved by a creating a nanohole array with volcano-shaped holes, fabricated by a simple colloidal lithography method. The monochromatic colors show sensitive responses to environmental changes, which results from a unique surface plasmon resonance process. The nanovolcano arrays are believed to offer great potential for low-cost and efficient optical applications.

    2. Low-Stress Silicon Nitride Platform for Mid-Infrared Broadband and Monolithically Integrated Microphotonics (pages 732–739)

      Pao Tai Lin, Vivek Singh, Hao-Yu Greg Lin, Tom Tiwald, Lionel C. Kimerling and Anuradha Murthy Agarwal

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300205

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      A monolithic Mid-IR microphotonics platform is demonstrated by engineered Si-rich and low-stress silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films. A measured optical transmission loss of < 0.2 dB cm-1 is achieved over a broad mid-IR spectrum. Using the SiNx film an efficient mid-IR directional coupler is developed that shows a high extinction ratio of 7 dB upon wavelength scanning (λ = 2.45–2.65 μm).

    3. A Hollow-Core Optical Cavity Built in a Three-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal (pages 740–746)

      Jian Wang, Jing Ouyang, Leo T. Varghese, Li Fan, Yi Xuan and Minghao Qi

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300208

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Strong 3D optical confinement in a three-layer silicon structure is shown. A missing row of rods with engineered rods in its neighboring rows traps light within the horizontal plane, and two capping layers of air–hole slabs localize the light vertically. A resulting hollow cavity concentrates 67% of the mode energy in air, and allows the detection of a refractive index change ≈8.8×10−6.

    4. Visible-to-UV/Violet Upconversion Dynamics in Er3+-Doped Oxyfluoride Nanoscale Glass Ceramics (pages 747–752)

      Vicente D. Rodríguez, Victor K. Tikhomirov, Jose J. Velázquez, Mikhail V. Shestakov and Victor V. Moshchalkov

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300212

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      An efficient UV/violet upconversion luminescence is found under green excitation of Er3+, obtaining intensities comparable to that of the resonant green emission. This intensity increases with the square of the pump power, without saturation effects even for relatively high pump-power densities. A comprehensive analysis of the involved upconversion mechanisms is presented. These materials could be useful to enhance the efficiency of the water-splitting systems.

    5. On the Thermal Load of the Color-Conversion Elements in Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 753–762)

      Paul Fulmek, Christian Sommer, Paul Hartmann, Peter Pachler, Hans Hoschopf, Gregor Langer, Johann Nicolics and Franz P. Wenzl

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300207

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      Recent developments in high-power LED technology allow the junction temperatures in phosphor-converted LEDs to be kept at comparably low levels. Still challenging is effective heat removal from the phosphor layer. An appropriate design and composition of the respective materials also turns out as a promising strategy to keep the thermal load of the phosphor layer at a moderate level.

    6. Polarimetric z-Scan Study of Nonlinear Chirooptic Properties of Chiral Polyfluorene (pages 763–767)

      Guang S. He, Min Ju Cho, Won Jin Kim, Alexander Baev, Augustine Urbas and Paras N. Prasad

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300266

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      Chiral control of optical nonlinearities has important implications in fields as diverse as all-optical switching and biosensing. Here, the synthesis and z-scan characterization of a fluorene-based chiral polymer are presented. The nonlinear optical activity is found to be the highest reported so far.

    7. Stable Lasing in Azobenzene Polyelectrolyte with Polarization Gratings as Distributed Feedback (pages 768–775)

      Leonid M. Goldenberg, Victor Lisinetskii and Sigurd Schrader

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300295

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      Thin film distributed feedback lasers based on azobenzene polyelectrolyte and polarization gratings emit from 640 to 870 nm. Some of the lasers exhibit remarkable half lives of a few tens of thousands of pulses without encapsulation. The lasers emitting in the 1st diffraction order show a higher efficiency and a lower lasing threshold.

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