Advanced Optical Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 5

May 2014

Volume 2, Issue 5

Pages 403–500

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Sensors: An Optical Sensor for Volatile Amines Based on an Inkjet-Printed, Hydrogen-Bonded, Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Film (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014) (page 403)

      Jelle E. Stumpel, Claudia Wouters, Nicole Herzer, Judith Ziegler, Dirk J. Broer, Cees W. M. Bastiaansen and Albertus P. H. J. Schenning

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470027

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      A green reflecting, hydrogen-bonded, cholesteric liquid crystal polymer film has been printed on a foil by C. W. M. Bastiaansen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and co-workers. As demonstrated on page 459, this foil can be used as an optical sensor to detect volatile amines that are produced by decaying fish, resulting in a red color. The authors thank ICMS Animation Studio for preparing this cover image.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Light Beam-Induced Current: 2D Characterization of OPV from Single and Tandem Cells to Fully Roll-to-Roll Processed Modules with and without Electrical Contact (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014) (page 404)

      Frederik C. Krebs and Mikkel Jørgensen

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470028

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      A new contactless light beam-induced current method can be used to identify defects in complex organic multilayer films such as flexible and roll-to-roll processed OPV and tandem OPV modules. In the case of tandem OPV, the method employed by F. C. Krebs and M. Jørgensen on page 465 uses two lasers with different wavelengths to address the individual junctions. Full roll-to-roll contactless testing with solar cells moving at constant speed is possible using a unique coupling scheme combined with signal processing.

  3. Back Cover

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    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
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      Light Extraction: A Low-Cost Nano-modified Substrate Integrating both Internal and External Light Extractors for Enhancing Light Out-Coupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014) (page 502)

      Yibin Jiang, Shuming Chen, Guijun Li, He Li and Hoi-Sing Kwok

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470033

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      Low-cost nano-modified substrates integrating both internal and external light extractors are developed by S. Chen, H.-S. Kwok, and co-workers. An internal light extractor is constructed on page 418 by wet-chemical etching as-deposited AZO, while an external light extractor is easily built by coating a BTPE-nanowire-based scattering film. With the integrated substrate, OLEDs exhibit an impressive forward efficiency improvement of 1.6-fold and a total efficiency improvement of 2.2-fold.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014)

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470032

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Borates: Analysis of Deep-UV Nonlinear Optical Borates: Approaching the End (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014) (page 410)

      Wenjiao Yao, Ran He, Xiaoyang Wang, Zheshuai Lin and Chuangtian Chen

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470030

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      Deep UV (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals are in urgent demand for harmonic generation with wavelengths between 200 and 150 nm, owing to their core applications in advanced instruments in laser science and technology, including areas such as ultra-fine spectrum probing, precise micro-machining, laser cooling, and atto-second pulse generation. Here, a KBe2BO3F2 crystal and its atomic structure are displayed, and the development prospects of DUV NLO crystals are evaluated by Z. S. Lin, C. T. Chen, and co-workers based on a structure-property relationship analysis.

  7. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Analysis of Deep-UV Nonlinear Optical Borates: Approaching the End (pages 411–417)

      Wenjiao Yao, Ran He, Xiaoyang Wang, Zheshuai Lin and Chuangtian Chen

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300535

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      The access to deep-UV (DUV) sources depends greatly on the performance of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals used in all-solid-state lasers. This paper discusses the structure-induced properties of the declared promising DUV NLO borates since the development of KBe2BO3F2, and forecasts their prospects of application. The KBe2BO3F2 is so far the best DUV NLO borate, and has yet to be surpassed.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. A Low-Cost Nano-modified Substrate Integrating both Internal and External Light Extractors for Enhancing Light Out-Coupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 418–422)

      Yibin Jiang, Shuming Chen, Guijun Li, He Li and Hoi-Sing Kwok

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low-cost nano-modified substrates integrating both internal and external light extractors are developed. Internal light extractors are constructed by wet-chemical etching of as-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), while external light extractors are built by coating a 4,40-bis(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)biphenyl (BTPE)-nanowire-based scattering film. With the integrated substrate, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) exhibit an impressive forward efficiency improvement of 1.6-fold and a total efficiency improvement of 2.2-fold.

    2. Passive PT Symmetry in Organic Composite Films via Complex Refractive Index Modulation (pages 423–427)

      Yixin Yan and Noel C. Giebink

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400021

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      Organic small molecules are proposed and demonstrated as a platform to realize arbitrary complex refractive index modulation and to explore passive parity-time (PT) symmetry breaking in a composite organic thin film. The strong optical response and synthetic freedom afforded by small molecules and polymers make this material class an exciting opportunity to realize new PT-based photonic functionality for devices throughout the visible and near-infrared spectrum.

    3. Terahertz Radiation via Ultrafast Manipulation of Thermoelectric Conversion in Thermoelectric Thin Films (pages 428–434)

      Kouhei Takahashi, Tsutomu Kanno, Akihiro Sakai, Hiromasa Tamaki, Hideo Kusada and Yuka Yamada

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400009

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      An ultrafast terahertz functionality of thermoelectric materials is shown. Femtosecond laser heating results in terahertz emission from thermoelectric Bi2Te3 thin films in a non-standard manner. The results manifest an ultrafast build-up of the thermal diffusion current on the picosecond order, which is useful for the development of high-speed optoelectronic thermoelectric devices.

    4. ITO-Free, Compact, Color Liquid Crystal Devices Using Integrated Structural Color Filters and Graphene Electrodes (pages 435–441)

      Jinbao Guo, Chad M. Huard, Yang Yang, Young Jae Shin, Kyu-Tae Lee and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300525

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      A compact, indium tin oxide-free, color liquid crystal device is demonstrated using a transmission-mode Fabry–Perot cavity filter and graphene. This work points to a way to utilize these multifunctional structures for ITO-free liquid crystal applications.

    5. Scattering or Photoluminescence? Major Mechanism Exploration on Performance Enhancement in P3HT-Based Polymer Solar Cells with NaYF4:2% Er3+, 18% Yb3+ Upconverting Nanocrystals (pages 442–449)

      Shufen Chen, Bo Peng, Fen Lu, Yang Mei, Fan Cheng, Lingling Deng, Qihua Xiong, Lianhui Wang, Xiaowei Sun and Wei Huang

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300522

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      Upconverting nanocrystals (UC NCs), NaYF4:2% Er3+, 18% Yb3+, are doped into a hole-extraction layer and realize enhancement factors of 13% and 6.5% for the short-circuit current density and power-conversion efficiency, respectively, in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Scattering of the incident light by the NCs plays an important role in performance enhancement.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Hot Exciton Emission: Surface Plasmon Enhanced Hot Exciton Emission in Deep UV-Emitting AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells (Advanced Optical Materials 5/2014) (page 450)

      Jun Yin, Yang Li, Shengchang Chen, Jing Li, Junyong Kang, Wei Li, Peng Jin, Yonghai Chen, Zhihao Wu, Jiangnan Dai, Yanyan Fang and Changqing Chen

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201470031

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      Deep UV emission from hot exciton transitions at higher energy sub-bands can be significantly enhanced by an energy-matched surface plasmon (SP)-exciton coupling effect in AlGaN multiple quantum wells decorated with Al nanoparticles. The ground state emission is correspondingly suppressed due to the altered recombination channel of excitons after introducing the SP-exciton coupling effect. Here, J. Li, Z. H. Wu, and co-workers show violet pairs of electrons and holes and light representing the hot excitions and their emission with a higher energy, and blue pairs of electrons and holes and the light represent ground state excitions and their emission.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Hot Exciton Emission in Deep UV-Emitting AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells (pages 451–458)

      Jun Yin, Yang Li, Shengchang Chen, Jing Li, Junyong Kang, Wei Li, Peng Jin, Yonghai Chen, Zhihao Wu, Jiangnan Dai, Yanyan Fang and Changqing Chen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300463

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      Significant deep UV emission enhancement, as high as 3.2-fold, in AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) via the energy-matched coupling of local surface plasmons (SPs) with hot excitons is demonstrated. This work provides not only a promising way to improve the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in deep UV-emitting QWs, but also an insight into SP-enhanced hot carrier emission.

    2. An Optical Sensor for Volatile Amines Based on an Inkjet-Printed, Hydrogen-Bonded, Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Film (pages 459–464)

      Jelle E. Stumpel, Claudia Wouters, Nicole Herzer, Judith Ziegler, Dirk J. Broer, Cees W. M. Bastiaansen and Albertus P. H. J. Schenning

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300516

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      Facile determination of volatile amines in an optical fashion is possible with the use of hydrogen-bonded cholesteric liquid crystalline polymer films. Due to a response of the film to trimethylamine gas, the cholesteric reflector changes its color. This optical sensor is inkjet-printed on a foil, making it suitable for food packaging applications.

    3. 2D Characterization of OPV from Single and Tandem Cells to Fully Roll-to-Roll Processed Modules with and without Electrical Contact (pages 465–477)

      Frederik C. Krebs and Mikkel Jørgensen

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400016

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      A fast light beam-induced current (LBIC) method that does not require electrical contact is presented. The method represents the ultimate in-line inspection tool for roll-to-roll processed organic photovoltaics with buried contacts. A description of how the need for a technique with a given set of requirements led to the gradual development and evolution of LBIC into such a technique is also presented.

    4. High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Non-planar Substrates (pages 478–486)

      Yi Zou, Danning Zhang, Hongtao Lin, Lan Li, Loise Moreel, Jie Zhou, Qingyang Du, Okechukwu Ogbuu, Sylvain Danto, J. David Musgraves, Kathleen Richardson, Kevin D. Dobson, Robert Birkmire and Juejun Hu

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300489

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      High-index-contrast photonic structures are fabricated on both silicon and unconventional plastic substrates in composition-engineered chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin films, using a roll-to-roll and backend-compatible nanoimprint technique. Imprinted optical resonators exhibit a record quality factor of 4 × 105 near 1550 nm (wavelengths), the highest value reported in ChG microring resonators.

    5. Fractal Holey Metal Microlenses with Significantly Suppressed Side Lobes and High-Order Diffractions in Focusing (pages 487–492)

      Yan Jun Liu, Hong Liu, Eunice Sok Ping Leong, Chan Choy Chum and Jing Hua Teng

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300447

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      A fractal holey metal microlens is demonstrated based on finite areas of two-dimensional arrays of circular nanoholes. The unique design enables superior focusing with greatly suppressed side lobes and high-order diffractions. The ultra-thin, planar, and compact design of the fractal holey metal microlenses with excellent focusing performance will benefit many applications such as bioimaging, optical trapping, and integrated optics.

    6. Plasmonic Schottky Nanojunctions for Tailoring the Photogeneration Profile in Thin Film Solar Cells (pages 493–500)

      Fiona J. Beck, Tania Lasanta and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300460

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      Schottky nanojunctions are fabricated from colloidal quantum dot films and Ag nanoparticles that also support plasmonic resonances. This dual functionality is exploited to modify the generation profile such that carriers are generated within the depletion region of the Schottky diodes. In this way, the generation profile is tailored across the device to achieve more efficient carrier collection.

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