Borate as a Phosphate Ester Mimic in Aldolase-Catalyzed Reactions: Practical Synthesis of L-Fructose and L-Iminocyclitols

Authors

  • Masakazu Sugiyama,

    1. Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA, Fax: (+1)-858-784-2409
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  • Zhangyong Hong,

    1. Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA, Fax: (+1)-858-784-2409
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  • Lisa J. Whalen,

    1. Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA, Fax: (+1)-858-784-2409
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  • William A. Greenberg,

    1. Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA, Fax: (+1)-858-784-2409
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  • Chi-Huey Wong

    1. Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA, Fax: (+1)-858-784-2409
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Abstract

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases have been widely used for the organic synthesis of unnatural sugars or derivatives. The practicality of using DHAP-dependent aldolases is limited by their strict substrate specificity and the high cost and instability of DHAP. Here we report that the DHAP-dependent aldolase L-rhamnulose 1-phosphate aldolase (RhaD) accepts dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as a donor substrate in the presence of borate buffer, presumably by reversible in situ formation of DHA borate ester. The reaction appears to be irreversible, with the products thermodynamically trapped as borate complexes. We have applied this discovery to develop a practical one-step synthesis of the non-caloric sweetener L-fructose. L-Fructose was synthesized from racemic glyceraldehyde and DHA in the presence of RhaD and borate in 92 % yield on a gram scale. We also synthesized a series of L-iminocyclitols, which are potential glycosidase inhibitors, in only two steps.

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