Enzyme Immobilization: The Quest for Optimum Performance



Immobilization is often the key to optimizing the operational performance of an enzyme in industrial processes, particularly for use in non-aqueous media. Different methods for the immobilization of enzymes are critically reviewed. The methods are divided into three main categories, viz. (i) binding to a prefabricated support (carrier), (ii) entrapment in organic or inorganic polymer matrices, and (iii) cross-linking of enzyme molecules. Emphasis is placed on relatively recent developments, such as the use of novel supports, e.g., mesoporous silicas, hydrogels, and smart polymers, novel entrapment methods and cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs).