Hydrotalcite-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/HT) were found to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols under mild reaction conditions (40 °C, in air). This catalyst system does not require any additives and is applicable to a wide range of alcohols, including less reactive cyclohexanol derivatives. This Au/HT catalyst could also function in the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol under neat conditions; the turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) reached 200,000 and 8,300 h−1, respectively. These values are among the highest values compared to those of other reported catalyst systems at high conversion. Moreover, the Au/HT can be recovered by simple filtration and reused without any loss of its activity and selectivity.