Synthesis of Partially Graphitic Ordered Mesoporous Carbons with High Surface Areas

Authors

  • Wenjun Gao,

    1. Department of Chemistry, the Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, P.R. China
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  • Ying Wan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, the Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, P.R. China
    • Department of Chemistry, the Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, P.R. China.
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  • Yuqian Dou,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China
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  • Dongyuan Zhao

    1. Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China
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Abstract

Graphitic carbons with ordered mesostructure and high surface areas (of great interest in applications such as energy storage) have been synthesized by a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method. Pluronic F127 is used as a structure-directing agent, with a low-molecular-weight phenolic resol as a carbon source, ferric oxide as a catalyst, and silica as an additive. Inorganic oxides can be completely eliminated from the carbon. Small-angle XRD and N2 sorption analysis show that the resultant carbon materials possess an ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructure, uniform bimodal mesopores (about 1.5 and 6 nm), high surface area (∼1300 m2/g), and large pore volumes (∼1.50 cm3/g) after low-temperature pyrolysis (900 °C). All surface areas come from mesopores. Wide-angle XRD patterns demonstrate that the presence of the ferric oxide catalyst and the silica additive lead to a marked enhancement of graphitic ordering in the framework. Raman spectra provide evidence of the increased content of graphitic sp2 carbon structures. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm that numerous domains in the ordered mesostructures are composed of characteristic graphitic carbon nanostructures. The evolution of the graphitic structure is dependent on the temperature and the concentrations of the silica additive, and ferric oxide catalyst. Electrochemical measurements performed on this graphitic mesoporous carbon when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical double layer capacitor shows rectangular-shaped cyclic voltammetry curves over a wide range of scan rates, even up to 200 mV/s, with a large capacitance of 155 F/g in KOH electrolyte. This method can be widely applied to the synthesis of graphitized carbon nanostructures.

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