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Silicon–Carbon Nanotube Coaxial Sponge as Li-Ion Anodes with High Areal Capacity



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Highly porous, conductive Si-CNT sponge-like structures with a large areal mass loading are demonstrated as effective Li-ion battery anode materials. Nanopore formation and growth in the Si shell has been identified as the primary failure mode of the Si-CNT sponge anode, and the formation of such nanopores can be minimized by tuning the cutoff voltages. In conjunction with experiments, a theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the pore formation mechanism.