• nitrogen-rich carbon;
  • supercapacitors;
  • eggshells;
  • biomass waste;
  • energy storage


Supercapacitor electrode materials are synthesized by carbonizing a common livestock biowaste in the form of chicken eggshell membranes. The carbonized eggshell membrane (CESM) is a three-dimensional macroporous carbon film composed of interwoven connected carbon fibers containing around 10 wt% oxygen and 8 wt% nitrogen. Despite a relatively low surface area of 221 m2 g−1, exceptional specific capacitances of 297 F g−1 and 284 F g−1 are achieved in basic and acidic electrolytes, respectively, in a 3-electrode system. Furthermore, the electrodes demonstrate excellent cycling stability: only 3% capacitance fading is observed after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g−1. These very attractive electrochemical properties are discussed in the context of the unique structure and chemistry of the material.