Building a low-carbon society supported by sustainable energy is a worldwide topic. The aqueous lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising stationary power sources for sustainable energies such as wind and solar power. The aqueous LIB may solve both the safety problem associated with the lithium-ion batteries which use highly toxic and flammable organic solvents, and the poor cycling life associated with commercialized aqueous rechargeable batteries including lead-acid and nickel-metal-hydride systems. During the past decades, many efforts have been made to improve the performance of the aqueous lithium-ion battery. The present work reviews the latest advances in the exploration and development of battery systems and relative materials. Also the main approaches, achievements, and challenges in this field are briefly commented on and discussed.