Round-Robin Studies as a Method for Testing and Validating High-Efficiency ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells Based on Roll-to-Roll-Coated Highly Conductive and Transparent Flexible Substrates



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A round robin, where several laboratories study the same solar cells in a sequential manner, is a fast and powerful method that enables the validation of performance parameters and the establishment of their spread. Flexible and ITO-free polymer solar cells characterized in this manner present a spread in recorded parameters with a standard error of 5–25% where degradation is eliminated. This underlines the need for the general use of such techniques.