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Top-illuminated Organic Photovoltaics on a Variety of Opaque Substrates with Vapor-printed Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Top Electrodes and MoO3 Buffer Layer

Authors

  • Miles C. Barr,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. These authors contributed equally to this work.
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  • Rachel M. Howden,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Current affiliation:
    1. These authors contributed equally to this work.
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  • Richard R. Lunt,

    1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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  • Vladimir Bulović,

    1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
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  • Karen K. Gleason

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    • Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
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Abstract

Organic photovoltaics devices typically utilize illumination through a transparent substrate, such as glass or an optically clear plastic. Utilization of opaque substrates, including low cost foils, papers, and textiles, requires architectures that instead allow illumination through the top of the device. Here, we demonstrate top-illuminated organic photovoltaics, employing a dry vapor-printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer anode deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) on top of a small-molecule organic heterojunction based on vacuum-evaporated tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and C60 heterojunctions. Application of a molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) buffer layer prior to oCVD deposition increases the device photocurrent nearly 10 times by preventing oxidation of the underlying photoactive DBP electron donor layer during the oCVD PEDOT deposition, and resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.8% for the top-illuminated, ITO-free devices, approximately 75% that of the conventional cell architecture with indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent anode (3.7%). Finally, we demonstrate the broad applicability of this architecture by fabricating devices on a variety of opaque surfaces, including common paper products with over 2.0% power conversion efficiency, the highest to date on such fiber-based substrates.

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