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A Highly Reversible Nano-Si Anode Enabled by Mechanical Confinement in an Electrochemically Activated LixTi4Ni4Si7 Matrix



This paper reports a Si-Ti-Ni ternary alloy developed for commercial application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Our alloy exhibits a stable capacity above 900 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles and a high coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% during cycling. To enable a highly reversible nano-Si anode, melt spinning is employed to embed nano-Si particles in a Ti4Ni4Si7 matrix. The Ti4Ni4Si7 matrix fulfills two important purposes. First, it reduces the maximum stress evolved in the nano-Si particles by applying a compressive stress to mechanically confine Si expansion during lithiation. And second, the Ti4Ni4Si7 matrix is a good mixed conductor that isolates nano-Si from the liquid electrolyte, thus preventing parasitic reactions responsible for the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase. Given that a coulombic efficiency above 99.5% is rarely reported for Si based anode materials, this alloy's performance suggests a promising new approach to engineering Si anode materials.

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