Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticle Hole Transport Layers for Organic Photovoltaic Devices



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High performance hole transport layers are realized using room temperature solution processing of microwave-synthesized MoOx nanoparticles. Composition of solution-deposited MoOx nanoparticle films can be increased from 10% to 70% MoO3 using air exposure (days) and reaction with H2O2 (minutes). The increased MoO3 content correlates well with improved solar cell performanceto the level of evaporated MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS, with good air stability.