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Keywords:

  • narrow-bandgap polymers;
  • conjugated polymers;
  • polymer solar cells;
  • bulk-heterojunction;
  • optical spacer
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Processing a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell with a narrow-bandgap polymer (P1) and a fullerene (PC71BM) results in a smooth surface morphology, and better performance is observed when a 1-chloronaphthalene solvent additive is used. The smooth surface enables the introduction of a titanium suboxide (TiOx) optical spacer between the BHJ layer and the electrode, which increases light absorption by redistributing the light intensity. TiOx incorporation leads to increases in the power conversion efficiency and device lifetime.