Porous Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries – How to Prepare Them and What Makes Them Special



Numerous benefits of porous electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been demonstrated, including examples of higher rate capabilities, better cycle lives, and sometimes greater gravimetric capacities at a given rate compared to nonporous bulk materials. These properties promise advantages of porous electrode materials for LIBs in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, portable electronic devices, and stationary electrical energy storage. This review highlights methods of synthesizing porous electrode materials by templating and template-free methods and discusses how the structural features of porous electrodes influence their electrochemical properties. A section on electrochemical properties of porous electrodes provides examples that illustrate the influence of pore and wall architecture and interconnectivity, surface area, particle morphology, and nanocomposite formation on the utilization of the electrode materials, specific capacities, rate capabilities, and structural stability during lithiation and delithiation processes. Recent applications of porous solids as components for three-dimensionally interpenetrating battery architectures are also described.