Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are highly efficient energy conversion devices with the advantage of directly utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Starting with a short introduction about the fuel challenges and early achievements in this field, this review paper focuses on advances in oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte-based SOFC during the last 15 years. Robust anodes immune to carbon deposition are a prerequisite for direct hydrocarbon SOFC. In this paper, direct hydrocarbon SOFC anode materials are classified into three general categories: Ni-cermet, Cu-cermet, and oxide-based anodes. Oxide anodes are further classified in terms of their crystalline structures, namely fluorite, rutile, tungsten bronze, pyrochlore, perovskite, and double perovskite. Achievements and recent advances on these SOFC anodes are reviewed and discussed. The concluding remarks summarize the pros and cons of direct hydrocarbon SOFC anode materials along with the perspective of future research trends.