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Keywords:

  • electrodes;
  • intercalation;
  • Jahn–Teller distortion;
  • lithium ion batteries;
  • structural change;
  • TiO2
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Structural changes during lithium intercalation (to x = 1.1 in LixTiO2) are studied in three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM)-TiO2 (figure) prepared by colloidal crystal templating. During the charging/discharging cycles, the pristine crystalline domains are pulverized to smaller nanodomains (∼4 nm), but the original 3DOM structure remains robust and maintains its pristine pore-wall thickness. The long-range ordered crystalline orthorhombic phase is partially transformed into the short-range order amorphous phase and Jahn–Teller distortion is also observed.