Nanocatalysis has been a growing field over the past few decades with significant developments in understanding the surface properties of nanocatalysts. With recent advances in synthetic methods, size, shape and composition of the nanoparticles can be controlled in a well defined manner which facilitates achieving selective reaction products in multipath reactions. Nanoparticles with specific exposed crystal facets can have different reactivity than other facets for reaction intermediates, which favours selective pathways during the course of reaction. Heterogeneous catalysts have been studied extensively; nano-sized metal particles are absorbed on mesoporus supports, facilitating access to the large surface area of the nanoparticles and hence exposure of more catalytic sites. Photocatalysis is attractive area of catalysis, in which photoinduced charge carriers are used for a variety of catalytic applications. More interestingly, clean and renewable liquid fuels energy sources such as hydrogen and methyl alcohol can be generated using photocatalysts through water splitting and CO2 reduction, respectively. Herein, we highlight the progress of nanocatalysis through metal, bimetallic nanoparticle, metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures and oxide nanoparticles for various reactions.