Bulk heterojunction solar cells containing molybdenum oxide hole extracting anode contacts have been fabricated with varying stoicheometry using radio frequency reactive sputtering from a Molybdenum metal target. A blend of the newly synthesised conjugated polymer poly[9-(heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl-alt-(5,6-bis(octyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)-5,5-diyl] (PCDTBT-8) and fullerene [6,6]-Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) was used as the photoactive layer and device results show that anodes with greater than 98% Molybdenum (VI) oxide result in peak power conversion efficiencies of 3.7%.The presence of up to 28% of Mo (V) results in no significant reduction in efficiency, however the presence of metallic Mo (IV) and lower oxidation states lead to severe reductions in device performance due to a combination of a large hole extraction energy barrier of approximately 0.9eV and reduced device stability.
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