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Keywords:

  • triboelectric nanogenerators;
  • wave energy;
  • biomechanical energy;
  • self-powered devices;
  • biosensors
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The first fully enclosed triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) that can be used to harvest wave and wind energies without being affected by harsh environmental conditions are reported. A TENG is fabricated in an enclosed sphere, driven by the turbulence/disturbance in the environment. TENGs fabricated in a fully enclosed cylinder can be used to harvest energy from mechanical vibration and/or shaking. The generated energy can be stored in a Li-ion battery for driving an ascorbic acid biosensor.