Composite anodic buffer layers composed of solution-processed graphene oxide and vanadium oxide (GO/VOx) exhibit a significant enhancement in their electron-blocking properties and sol–gel-precursor blocking abilities, compared to buffer layers of only the d0 transition metal oxide. Such composites enable inverted polymer solar cells to have high open-circuit voltage and fill factor values, as well as the highest power conversion efficiency to date of 6.7%, shedding light on how stable and cost-effective whole-solution-processed polymer solar cells may be achieved.
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