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Graphitic Petal Electrodes for All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors

Authors

  • Guoping Xiong,

    1. Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
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  • Chuizhou Meng,

    1. Center for Implantable Devices, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
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  • Ronald G. Reifenberger,

    1. Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
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  • Pedro P. Irazoqui,

    1. Center for Implantable Devices, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
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  • Timothy S. Fisher

    Corresponding author
    1. Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
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Abstract

The charge storage characteristics of a composite nanoarchitecture with a highly functional 3D morphology are reported. The electrodes are formed by the electropolymerization of aniline monomers into a nanometer-thick polyaniline (PANI) film that conformally coats graphitic petals (GPs) grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) on conductive carbon cloth (CC). The hybrid CC/GPs/PANI electrodes yield results near the theoretical maximum capacitance for PANI of 2000 F g−1 (based on PANI mass) and a large area-normalized specific capacitance of ≈2.6 F cm−2 (equivalent to a volumetric capacitance of ≈230 F cm−3) at a low current density of 1 A g−1 (based on PANI mass). The specific capacitances remain above 1200 F g−1 (based on PANI mass) for currents up to 100 A g−1 with correspondingly high area-normalized values. The hybrid electrodes also exhibit a high rate capability with an energy density of 110 Wh kg−1 and a maximum power density of 265 kW kg−1 at a current density of 100 A g−1. Long-term cyclic stability is good (≈7% loss of initial capacitance after 2000 cycles), with coulombic efficiencies >99%. Moreover, prototype all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors fabricated from these hybrid electrodes exhibit excellent energy storage performance.

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