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High-Performance Lithium-Iodine Flow Battery



A cathode-flow lithium-iodine (Li–I) battery is proposed operating by the triiodide/iodide (I3/I) redox couple in aqueous solution. The aqueous Li–I battery has noticeably high energy density (≈0.28 kWh kg−1cell) because of the considerable solubility of LiI in aqueous solution (≈8.2 m) and reasonably high power density (≈130 mW cm−2 at a current rate of 60 mA cm−2, 328 K). In the operation of cathode-flow mode, the Li–I battery attains high storage capacity (≈90% of the theoretical capacity), Coulombic efficiency (100% ± 1% in 2–20 cycles) and cyclic performance (>99% capacity retention for 20 cycles) up to total capacity of 100 mAh.