There are growing concerns over the environmental, climate, and health impacts caused by using non-renewable fossil fuels. The utilization of green energy, including solar and wind power, is believed to be one of the most promising alternatives to support more sustainable economic growth. In this regard, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can play a critically important role. To further increase the energy and power densities of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high capacity, low operation potential, environmental friendliness, and high abundance. The main challenges for the practical implementation of silicon anodes, however, are the huge volume variation during lithiation and delithiation processes and the unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. Recently, significant breakthroughs have been achieved utilizing advanced nanotechnologies in terms of increasing cycle life and enhancing charging rate performance due partially to the excellent mechanical properties of nanomaterials, high surface area, and fast lithium and electron transportation. Here, the most recent advance in the applications of 0D (nanoparticles), 1D (nanowires and nanotubes), and 2D (thin film) silicon nanomaterials in LIBs are summarized. The synthetic routes and electrochemical performance of these Si nanomaterials, and the underlying reaction mechanisms are systematically described.